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          1. 首页 > 油箱盖 > 分离设备 > 农业机械林业机械

            齿轮输油泵

            LongGuoqiangAsaninternationalorganizationdevotedtohandlinginternationaltraderelations,theWorldTradeOrganization(WTO)isinessencedesignedtorestrictthetradepoliciesofitsmembersafterenteringtheWTO,,thispaperhasputforwardsomeproposalsonthereformoftheforeigneconomicmanagementsystemstobeimplementedafterChina’’seconomyfromaclosedonetoanopenone,thecontentsofeconomicactivitieshavebecomericherandrichersincethelate1970s,andmoreandmorefoemastheultimategoalofthereform,thepaceofreformhasbeennoticeablyslowerthanthatoftheopen-updriv,meanwhile,haslgementsystemisrestrictedinagementwillbesubjecttorestrictionfromthedomesticplanningsystem,theinvestmentandfund-raisingsystem,thefinancialsystem,,thecurrentforeigneconomicma,governmentofficialsarehauntedbyred-tapism,theforeigneconomicmanagementsystemispermeatedwiththemanagementconceptof"biggovernmentandsmallmarket",andthereisthetendencyofpreferringadministrativemeasurestolegalmeans,examinationandapprovaltomanagementandservices,andhandlingofspecifi,however,thefunctionsofgovernmenthaveremainedaswhattheywere,governmentpowershavenotbeenreduced,andproblemssuchasproductionofpilesofdocuments,overlappingoforganizationalestablishments,management,complicatedformalities,numerousloopholes,,ywillhaveadirectbearingupontheabilityofcompetitionofitsenterprisesattheinternationalmarket,uponitsinvestmentclimate,,thescaleofinternatia,however,hasmadeithardlypossibleforthecou(MA),forinstance,,however,thereisnotyetanylawtogovernthisnewkindofforeignactivity,thuspreventingChinatostepuputilizationofforeigninvestmentorspeed,foranotherinstance,hasdevelopedextremelyrapidly,,however,ts,bigchangesinprice,"zerostock".InChina,however,customsandcommodityinspectiondepartmentsarestillsupervisingandmanagingthehi-techindustryinsuchawayastheytreatthetraditionalindustries,andthelowefficiencyofthesupervisionandmanagementsystemhasoftenimpedede,somehi-techenterpriseshavetotransfersomeoftheirhigh-profnagementsystemwillseriouslyrestrictthesharpeningofthecompetitiveedgeofChina’seconomyattheinternationalmarketandcausethecountrytol,reformofChina’sforeigneconomicmanagementsystemisaninherentdemandofChina’rstrengtheningtheabilityofacountryininternationaleconomiccompetition,butalsosupplyamechani,ithasadirectbearinguponacountry’seffortstogarmofthestmicstructures,,andtheabilitytomeettheimpactso,itisnecessarytocreatecertainmechanismofprotectiontoguaranteethesecurityofChina’snationalandeconomicinterests.金马国际官網,allthreeleadingdevelopedeconomiesintheworld,theUnitedStates,theEurozoneandJapan,,theeconomicgrowthofthedevelopingcountriesandthecountriesineconomictransition,withtheexceptionofthoseinAfrica,tionoftheglobaleconomy,andtheireconomicd,theUnitedStatesaccountedfor22percentoftheworld’sgrossdomesticproduct(GDP)’’’seconomicdownturnproducedcertainglobalrepercussions,,JapanestablishedextensiverelationswiththedevelopingcountriesandtheemergingeconomiesintheEastAsiaintheareasoftrade,,Japan’’sGDPanditsloanstoThailandaccountedforashighas21percentofThailand’,,,someinternationalinstitutionshavebeentryingtoimprovetheirglobaleconomicforecastsandissueregularforecastfigur,Chinarankedsixthin,ithasto,forecastingworldeconomicdevelopmentsrequirestheaccumulationoflargeamountsofdata,techniques,,wehavemanyscholarsengagedintheforecastandanalysisofthedomesticeconomy,andsomeresearchershavebeenengagedintheeconomicf,Chinalacksn-making(I)OverviewofWorldEconomicForecastInstitutionsTheinstitutionsengagedintheanalysisandforecastofth(IMF),theWorldBank(),theOrganizationofEconomicCooperationandDevelopment(OECD)andtheAsianDevelopmentBank(ADB).Theirforecastsaremainlydesignedtoserveasthedecision-developmentsaretheIMFWorldEconomicOutlook(biannual),theWBGlobalEconomicProspectsandtheDevelopingCountries(annual),theOECDEconomicOutlook(biannual)iloftheUnitedNationsalsopublishannualreportssuchastheWorldE(private),AmericanExpress,,theyalsocon,theConsensusEconomicsInc.,aLondon-basedforecastcompany,hasbeensummasandgovernmentinstitutions,ittakesthemean,isonamonthlyorweeklybasiswithlessrestraint,(II)MethodsofWor,manydevelopedcountriesintheworldestablishedtheirownnationalmodelsandaccumulatednearly50yearsofexperienceincompiling,,,,workedastheco,thismodelincorporatedthenationalmodelsofthedevelopingcountries,Russia,,supplementedwithmathematicmodelsandpolicysimulationsBecauseofthecomplexityoftheworldeconomyandtheirpossessionoflargenumbersofexperts,leadinginternationaleconomicinstitutionsmainlyrelyontheforecastsoftheirexperts,madebyitsregionalandcountryexpertsandthulti-countrymacroeconomiccomputingmodel(Multimode),analysesofthechangesinmonetaryandfina,theyareretuadymatureandreliablemodels,therelevantcount,theIMFMultimodehasbeenconstantlyimproved,,(STEP)areheld,sionsat,thisyear’sOECDEconomicOutlookofferedfivehypotheticsi,asaggingimportdemandofnon-OECDcountries,,,anda100-basis-pointdeclineininterestrate....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,

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            金马国际官網 三明市发展和改革委员会关于公布市级定价管理的经营服务性收费目录清单的通告 ChengXiusheng,LiWei-an,QiAnbangandWangXiaomingResearchReportNo044,rviceModernenterprisesusuallyusethefollowingfourpatternsofdistributionservice:(1)Theclientself-servicepattern(firstpartydistributionservices).Withthispattern,a"self-sufficient"pattern,hardlysocializedandspecialized,hasloweconomicefficiency.(2)Thesupplierdistributionservicepattern(secondpartydistributionservices).Withthispattern,asupplierusesits,thisservicepatternhashigherlevelofsocializationthanthefirstpartyservicepattern,,itsservicetargetsremainlimitedwithintheclientsofthesupplier.(3),athirdpartyofdistributionserviceenterpriseotherthanthetwopartiesofatransactionusesitsdistributionservicefacilitiesandequipment,thethirdenterprisethatprovidedistributionservicesmustcarryoutoperationandcertainmanagementtasksfortheownerenefficiencyandresults.(4),integratedmanagementserviceofmoderndistributionprovidedbyafourthserviceparty(whichisneitherthetwotransactionpartiesnorthethirdparty)to,whichincludesystemdesignfordistributi,itssubcontractorsandquasidistributionenterprises,whichincludeintegrationofdistributionservices,transportationandoptimalstoragemanagement,distributionandclientservicemanagement,,thedevelopmentofsocialiseddistributionservicesgenerallyundergoesthefollowingstages:(1)ThestageoftraditionalserviceThisisapatternandstageofsocialiseddistribution,thesocialisationofse(2)ThestageofsocialisedmoderndistributionThi,aproviderofthethirdpartymaycarryoutmostofthedistributionoperationofaclient(productionorcirculation)enterprise.(3)Thestageofintegratedandsocializeddistributions,whilethethirdpartyprovidescomprehensivedistributionservicestocliententerprises,thenewspecialisedprovidersofintegratedservices(thefourthpartyofdistributionservice)providciety,andconsequentlyformthepanChina(1)Chinaisinaninitialstageoftransitionfromthetradititherearestillalargenumberofenterprisesthatprovidetraditionaldistributionserviceand"quasidistribution",thenumberofthiskindofdistributionenterprisesisdiminishing,whilethenumberegivinguptheirprevioussimplifiedser,manyenterprisesofthirdpartydistributionser,themanufacturingandcirculationenterprisescontinuetoadoptthefirstpartydistributionasthemainservicepatternatpresent,,whilethefourthpartyservicepatternisstillinthestageoftheoreticalstudyandpublicity.(2)Self-spossessandmaintaintheirowndistributionservicefacilitiesfortransportation,storageandhandling,whileself-sufficientserviceremainsthemajorsourceofdistributionservicesforindustrialandcommercialenterprises.ChenXiwenResearchReport,,2000(Total1282)Duringthe9thFive-YearPlanperiod,anoverallbalancewasachievedbetweenthesupplyanddemandofmajoragriculturalproducts,’sagriculture,whichforlong-termtookthesupplyofsufficientfoodandclothingtothepeopleasitsfundamentaltarget,wouldnowenteran’sagriculture,andtheruralareasasawhole,,andsomehaveresultedfromthesurfacingofsomedeeplyrootedconickenthepaceofsystemandorganizationinnovationwillbethekeytosmoothadvanceofChina’sagricultureandruralworkasawholeintoanewperiodofdevelopment,andthecentraltaskinChina’dbasicappr(1).Glaringcontradictionbetandinattentiontoqualitativeoptimizationforlongyearsinthepasthasobviouslybeenrestrictedbydemand.(2).,townshipenterpriseshavegrownnoticeablywe,therurallabourforcehassufferedasetbackinitstransfertosecondaryandtertiaryindustries,andthetotalnumberofemployeesinagriculturehasbouncedback.(3).Increasingdifficultiesinthegrowthofthefarmers’,thegrowthofaverageper-capitanetincomeoffarmershassloweddownandtheruralareaasawholehassunkintoasituationofearningeverlessfromagricultureandrelyingmershasshrunkfortwoyears.(4).Aggravatingpressu,thepricesofcereals,oilsandotherstapleagricultur’sentryintotheWorldTradeOrganization,pressuresfromthisdirectionwillnoticeablyaggravate.(5).Wideningdiscrepancybetweenthe’stownsandvillagesarebasicallyorganizati,however,areoutward-orientedbusinessoperationorganizationsfromwhichtheycangetmarketinformation,technicalandfundsupport,,theestablishmentoffullgovernmentsatthetownlevelhasledtoaswellingoforganizations,staffandexpenditures,broadmassesofpeopleintheruralareas.(6).Growingdistancebetweenasupportiveandprotectiveagriculturalsystemcharacterizedmainlybypriceprot,governmentswouldshoulderheavierburdens,governmentsubsidiescouldhardlygodirectlytofarmers,,thispractimentduringthe10thFive-YearPlanperiodThebasicapproachofthoughtsaboutagriculturalandruraldevelopmentatpresentandinthenearfuturehasbeendefinedbythedecisionmadeatthe3rdPl,specialattentionshouldbepaidtothreeissues:(1).Itshouldbestressedthatthestrengtheningofagricu,thecomprehensiveproductioncapacityofChina’,inparticular,ingrainproductionforfiveyears,,itwouldbeeasyforblindoptimismtodevelop,Five-YearPlanperiodhasitsinevitability,butitisalsoattributabletosomespecialfactors,suchassubstantialincreaseofthepricesofgovernmentpurchases,unlimitedpurchaseofgrainatprotectiveprices,,however,thegrowthofthepopulation,decreaseofcultivatedland,shortageofwater,,themarketsan,specialattentionshouldbepaidtostrengtheningthebasicpositionofagriculture,protectingandincreasinggrainproductioncapacityduringthe10thFive-YearPlanperiod,periodshouldbeconcentratedmoreonimprovementoftheproduction,livingandmarketconditionsofagricultureandtheruralareasasawhole,promotionofagriculturalscienceandtechnologyandpopularizationofadvancedandapplicabletechnology,establishmentofasystemforcollectionanddisseminationofinformationaboutthemarketsofagriculturalproductsandasystemofqualitystandardsforagriculturalproducts,anddevelopm,thefocusshouldbeputonimprovementofthecomprehensivequalityofagriculture,thequalityofagriculturalproductsandefficiencyofagriculture,andtheincomeoffarmers.ZhangChenghuiResearchReportNo162,cingactivityreferstoinformallyorganizedpublicfinvestmentandfinancingprocesseswherethesurplussocialcapitalsaretransfondepartmentsaresovigorousistyaimedatservingtheprivateeconomyandfillingupthevacancyofthesupplyanddemandmarket,ficultiesSincethereformandopeningup,China’,householdindus,,,theto,,,,ts"supplementary"s,however,thefinancingdifficultythathasalsystemandstructuralproblemsintheformalfinancialsystem,neitherthecapitalmarketnorthefundmarkethasev,about80percentoftheenterprisesregardfinancingdifficultyastheirmajordevelopmentobstacle,andover90percentofhouseholdandprivateenterprise(exceptlistedcompanies),theirowncapitaltakesup65percent,privateloansandcommercialcreditstakeup25percent,bankloansonlytakeup10percent,rivateenterprisescanhardlysatisfytheircapitaldemandthroughformalchannels,informalfinancingactivitieshaveremainedvigorousinareaswithdevelopedprivateeconomyandhavebecomeamajorsourceyrestrictedvarioustypesofprivatefinancingactivitiesandstrictlybanned"illegalfundraising"activities,,theymainlytakethefollowingways:,privateborrowingmarkethasneverceasedthanthatofbanklending,manyurbanresidentsinvestedtheirfundsintothismarketall-sizedenterprises,downstreamenterprisesdelaytheirpaymentsforupstreamenterprises,enterprisesdelaypaymenttooneanother,a,whenenterprise,theguaranteedenterpriseusesitsenterpriypartytodoso,thecreditor’,significantnumberofunderground(orsemi-underground)privatebanksandmiddlemenhds,:First,strength,buttheyhavetopayinterestsforinformalfinancingatadoubleratethanthatoftheformalfinancing,,’scapitalmarketrevealsthatthecostforlistingisveryhighwhetheranenterprisegetsdirectlylisted,orthroughpurchasingthemajor,,,duetohighinvestmentrisks,,,asthesharesofnon-listedcompaniescanhardlycirculate,manyundergroundtransactionstookplace,,undergroundstocktransactionsusedtoprevailinXi’an,Chengdu,Hainan,,theincomesfromstockownershiptrusteeofonly50enterprisesdelistedfromthestockexchangeamountedtoRMB30millioninoneyear,uitycirculationbycertaindegree,theyalsocreatedlotsof"primarysharefrauds".Somecompaniesjoinedtoge,aldoesnotonlyintensifytheproblemofchain-debtsinsociety,,,inter-en,however,,somelawlesspeoplehaveexploit,withsomeloansgrownfromthesizeof"ant"intothatof"elephant",andtheborrowersbeenruined,whichseriouslyaffectedsocialstability....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.--------------------------------------------------------------------------------1DatafromtheAll-ChinaFederationofIndustryandCommerce.

            Source:thefiguresfor1986wereesti“ElectronicsIndustryYearBook”forfiguresforthe“SeventhFive-YearPlan”andfor1991~,fastgrowthandledbyPC,isbasicallyconsistentwiththeinternationaltrend,thedifferencebeingonlythattherap,theproportionofPCinthecomputermarketisnearly90%inChina,whichishigherthanthatintheUSandJapan,whereitisabout70%.grewrapidlyfrommerelyUS$640millionin1991toUS$$80millionin1993toUS$,includingoverseas-fundedenterprises,ticsoftheformerElectronicsMinistry,computerandconcernedproductsinChinain1996weresoldtocustomerswiththefollowingproportions:financial/insuranceandmanufactureindustries18%,serviceindustry9%,transportation8%,telecommunications8%,educationandresearchinstitutions7%,energyandgovernmentorganisations6%,andhouseholds4%.However,thepr,ofthePCsalesinChina,%in1997andwillbeover30%by2000.(II)Thecomputerindust,cationoftheformationofanindustryistysystemwasonly191in1991withatotalemploymentoflessthan100,,thenumberofenterprisesconductingdevelopment,manufacture,sales,consultationserviceofcomputerandrelatedproductsreached15,000in1995,withanemploymentof300,,morethan1,000manufacturersemployedsome100,000staff,morethan1,000softwareenterprisesemployed80,000staffandsome13,000enterprisesinsalesandserviceemployedsome120,000staff....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.维多利亚登录网址“大就要有大的样子” ——献给中国共产党成立97周年 ’,an,China’seconomyhasbyandlargesteppedontothetrackofsocialistmarketeconomy,themechanismofmarkethasstartedtoplayabasicroleindistributionofresources,andthetradebasedoncredithasbecomethedominantmethodinthecountry’,a"buyersmarket",,creditofferedbyenterpriseforpurchasea,however,thedisorderofcreditsystemhasbecomeacriticalissuehamperingChina’,andbecomebaddebts,increasingnon-performingloanndelayedforalongtime,,counterfeitandinfringem,concealing,,increasedthetransactioncostsanddecreasedtheeconomicoperationefficiency,butalsodirectlyaffectedandhamperedthemarketmechanismfromplayinganormalroleinthedistributionofresources,andreducedtheeffectofgovernment’spolioncontractsamongeconomicentities,’sentryintotheWTO,thechaosincreditsystemalsoseriouslytarnishedthecountry’sinternationalcreditimage,’smodernmarketeconomyhadnotgrownenough,theeconomybasedoncreditappearedlate,,,socialeconomicentitieslacktheco,althoughtheconceptofmarketeconomyforurbanandruralresidentsandenterpriseshavebeenstrengthened,theculturalenvironmtmechanismforassessingcreditmoralitybasedonwhich,withinanenterprise,whichincludesmanagementofreceivablesandproductsales,,throughwhichenterpriseithinChina’,improperofferingofcreditalwaysleadtofailureinperformingthecontract,andcredit-offeringenterprisesfrequentstatusofclients,,asthepropertyrightsystemofstate-ownedenterprisesisnotcomplete,theirinternaladministrationstructureisnotstandardized,andthesituationofbeingdependentongovernmentshasnotbeenendedcompletely,,uponwhichthevulnerablepartywithlessinformationwillbedefrauded,’ssociety:ontheonehand,thedataofcreditinformationisopenedinlowdegree;thereislackofachanneltostandardizethedistributionandcollectionofinformation;thereisnospecificlawprovisionsonpublicityanduseofcollectedinformation;informationaboutenterprisesandindividualsinthehandsofgovernmentdepartmentsandspecial,,marketoperationandcreditproductstosomeenterprises,theirmarketislimitedandisoperatedatadispersedstate,t,thedatabasesofChina’screditinter,,’srelatedlawsarenotcompleteandthepunishmentmechanismagainstbreachoffaithisnotcomplete,agreatnumberofdefaultsw,effectivecreditjointmechanismandthecreditinformationisunsymmetric,the"blackrecords"of,rtywholosecredibilityandindirectlybreakstheconfidenceofthosehono,thereisacompletecreditsupervisionandmanagementsystemofthestate,includinglegislationandenforcementrelatingtocredit,,,althoughthereisaprincipleofhonoringcreditinChina’sGeneralPrinciplesofCivilLaw,ContractLaw,andLawagainstCompetitionbyInappropriateMeans,andtherearesomeregulationsconcerningpunishmentonfraudsandsimilarcrimesintheCriminalLaw,thisstilldoesnotconst,ivelyweak....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.

            优德w88直营网appLiShantong,,,generallyknownasthetertiarytrade,encompassesawidespectrumofactivitiesrangin,,spurredbytherapidgrowthoftheinformationtechnology(IT),anewindustrialrevolutionwassweepingacrossthedevelopedeconomies,bringingprofoundtransformationstotheservicetrade:(1)TheInternetande-commercehaveinvigoratedthistraditionalservicesector,makingitpossibletoofferitsproductsacrosstheworld;(2)Theflourishingknowledge-intensiveservicesectorembodiesthevalueofitsproductsinprovidingitsservicesandintellectualpropertyrights,includingcomputersoftware,informationprocessing,RD,testing,marketsurvey,humanresourcedevelopmentandcommercialorganization(managementconsultancyandemployeerecruitment).Intheyearsoftheplannedeconomy,policydiscriminationa,,fgrowthasfinance,insurance,accountingandlegalservicearebyfarnotsufficientinChinatomeettheneedsofeconomicdevelopment,,weshouldconsidertheexpansionofservicetradeasalong-term,yetpressingstrategictask.(1)rPlanperiod(2001-2005).Fromthepointofviewofvariousindustrialsectors,progressreliesonthedevelopmentoftheprimary,,rapi,%,,thusresultinginitsproportioninthenationaleconomyataround50%.Whenabuyer’smarkethastakenshape,gsectororanewgrowtharea,w,thebackwardservicetradehasretardedourcapi,financialinterme,especiallyincreditandsecurities,,,,nvestments,,t,humancapitalha,yetshortperiodofschoolingandweaklifelongeducation,thelaggingofservicetradehasrestrictedtheimprovementofinnovativecapabilities,nnovationandimperfecthnologysharedbymajorplayersincompetition,mostlyenterprisesintheprocessofinnovation,suchasbasictechnologicalknowledge,informationhighway,basicmanufacturingskillsandserviceslikeeconomic/,technologyinfrastructureisclosertothepracticalneedsofenterprises,"publicproduct"andco,rankingatthebottomofthe46countriesandregionsinthesurveyofinternationalcompetitivenessconducted,smarkethastakenshapeinChina,successfuldaheavydragonmarketexpansion.(2)Servicetradedevelop-omy,readjustmen,hwithdrawalofthestateeconomyandastrengthenedcontrolbystatesectoroverthenationaleconomyatthesametime....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.成都市教育局关于2017年直属学校公开招聘教师笔试成绩及相关事宜的公示 和记h188体育平台ChengXiusheng,LuHuapu,,roadcapacityinChinesecitieshadbeenlow,theper-capitaroadar,roadconstructionbegantospeedup,,maintaininganannualgrowthofabout10%.Althoughthegrowthspeedwasfast,itstilllaggedfarbehindthe20%,vehiclesinChinesecitiesgrewatanannualrateofmorethan15%,andtheannualgrowthrateofprivateautomobileswasashighas28%.fhighefficiency,energysavingandlowemissionaretobedeveloped,,improvethecitystructureandregion,thefastgrowthofautomobileswouldgiverisetosuchproblemsasenvironmentalpollution,slowerdrivingspeed,increaseinthenumberoftrafficaccidents,thelowerlevelofpublictransportservice(lowerdrivingspeedandlowpunctuality),anddi,thepublicbustransport(includingtrolleybus)inbigcitieshasbeenshrinkingintermsofoperationefficiency,operationmanagement,,,,/1,,however,droppedfrom12-14kilometers/hourto5-10kilometers/hour,thenewlyin,ofallmeansoftransportforurbanresidents,theuseofpublicbusdroppedfrom30%toabout10%rivatecars,this,inreturn,resultedawiderareaoftrafficcongestioninciti’urbanizationandthewideruseofvehicles,urbantransportsystemwilloccupymoreland,consumelargeamountofe,China’scurrentresources(includinglandresources)reserveandenergystructure,environmentalcapacityandtheenvironmentalbearingcapaci,DirectoroftheTransportation,WaterSupplyandUrbanDevelopmentBureauoftheWorldBank,stressedthreemutuallysupplementaryprincipleswhenassessingthesustainabledevelopmentofurbantransport:sustainabilityofeconomyandfinance,,citiesindevelopedcountriesachievethesustainabledevelopmentofurbantransportfromthefollowingtwoaspects:comprehensiveplanningoftransportati’snationalconditionsthatChinesecitiesmustmakegreateffortstodeveloppublictranspordevelopmentofacitycouldbeachievedandwhetherwideruseofautomobilesa,landisinshortsupply,populationdensityishigh,therefore,ntprincipleofgivingprioritytopublictransportforurbanpassengertransportation,andthispolicywasclearlystipulatedinseveralStateCouncildocuments,itiesandintheprocessofurbantransportplanning,con,includingpriorityincapital,planningandconstruction,orintermsofthelong-termdevelopmentstrategyoftheurbantransportation,priorityisgiventoconstructingthefasttracktransportsystem,ictransportsystemintermsoftimeandspace,toincreaseitsspeed,shortentimespentonroadandimprovethetranspor,,inHongKong,carsarenotallowedtomakerightturnsduringrushhoursandonlypublicbuseshavetheprivilegeofmakingrightturns(inHongKong,peopledriveonbenefit).Intermsofspacepriority,specialla,Japan,specialpublicbuslanesaresetalongtheroa,thecityisplanningtoconstructelevatedpublictransportroadsinthecityareasothatthespeedofgroundpublicbusescouldbeincreasedto20km/hfrom10km/emisbasedonthepublictransportsysteminCuritiba,,ithasthefeaturesoflarge-capacitytracktransportsystem,specialroadrights,,italsohastheflexiblecharacteristicsoftheconventionalpublictranspsystem,itisanewandhighlyefficientmodeofpublictransportsolutionwithlowcost,shortconstructionperiod,"groundsubway"nBrazilCuritiba,locatedinsouthernBrazil,(300carsper1,000residents).Thetransportforsu,,thecityhopedtodevelopamodern,,,thelandreservedfovelopedatplacesnearthepublictransportsystem,,designersandplannerspaidspecialattentiontothepublicbusstops(crystaltube-shapedplasticbusstops),whichwereconstructedatthesameheightofthebottomofpublicbus(800mmtotheground).,passengerscouldbuyticketsfirstattheplatforms,andthencou,inordertoreducethestoptime,theleaningpassagefrompublicbuscouldbeextendedtotheplatformwhenthebusstops,sothatp,CuritibafinallydevelopeditsuniqueMetrobussystem....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,莆田市发展和改革委员会转发省发改委关于降低电动汽车充电服务收费标准等相关政策的通知

            ’dwillmaintainasteadygrowthwhiletheinter,theunfavorableimpactoftheseuncertaintiesontheChineseeconomyisexpectedtobesmallerthanlastyearandthena,,thegrowthofthetotalvolumeofconsumergoodsretaildeclinedslightly,mainlyduetotheeffectofdecliningpricesandthefactthatthepurchasingwithtokenmoney,,,price,supplyandotherfactors,itisunlikel,,thegrowthofforeigninvestmentwasfa,,investmentgrowthisexpectedtobes,exportgrowthisexpectedtobesl,,,,weshouldseethatastheimprovementinChina’sexportconditionsisnottangibleanditsimportwillgrowfasterafterWTOaccession,thecountry’yfast,foreigndemandintermsofnetexportwilldecline,andthisyear’seconomicgrowthwillbeequaltoorslightlyhigherthanthatoflastyear,thepasttwoyears,somepositivechangesofmid-a,housing,automobile,telecommunications,infrastructureandothersectorsthatcoulddirectlyupgradeconsumptionstructureandindustrialstructureandeffectivelypushforw,foreigntransnationalcompaniesacceleratedthetransferringofpr,progresshasbeenmadeinreformingthestate-ownedenterprises,inbringingthemoutofdifficulties,andinrestructuring,reorganizing,,someenterprisesthaisesinsoutheastcoastalprovincesha,thereform,telecommunications,,initialprogresshasbeenmadeintheadjustmentandreformofgovernmentsystem,especiallyinoverhaulingtheadministrativeexaminationandapprovalsystem,,governmentrelationswithenterprises,,someispenditure;thesecondisthecontrastbetweeneconomicgrowthandeconomicefficiencyindex;andthethirdisthatwhiletheeconomyhasmaintainedafairlyfastgrowth,sitivefiscalpoliciesimplementedbythegovernmentinrecentyearsandthepoliciesofreformandadjustmentthatweredesi,therecouldbenoliberalenvironmentforthegrowthofsoci,withoutinherentdrivingforceforeconomicgrowth,thefairlyfasteconomicgrowthr,thetotalvolumeoftheChineseeconomyhasbeenconstantlyexpandingwhilethescaleofnationalbondsissuedbythegove,tosomeextent,duetotheexcessivedependenceoftheon-goingeconomicgrowth,especiallythegrowthofinvestmentandexport,yrelatedtothechangesintheexternalenvironment(forexample,thedeclininginternationaloilprices)he,protectandstrengthenthemarket-basedinherentdrivingforceforec,urtheupgradingofconsumptionstructure,suchaslowertaxesandfees,,housingmonetization,whichhasnotbeentrulyimplemented,andthemarketizationofusedhousesshouldbeexpedited,whilethe,stmententhusiasmofallinvestors,,theproactivefiscalpoliciesaimedatmaintainingeconomicgrowthrateshouldbereplacedbythefiscalpoliciesthatgiveequalemphasistosuppo,aftertheon-goingprojectssupportedbynationalbondsarebasicallycompleted,theemphasisofthefiscalpoliciesshouldshifttoincreasingthesupportforpoorpeopleandbackwardregionsandeasingthecont,itisimperativetoincreasethesupportfortheconstructionofthesocialsecuritysystem,toeasethehistoricalburdensofthestate-ownedenterprisesthatareintransition,andtopromotethecomprehensiveandsubstantialadvanceintheadjustmentofthedistributio,itisnecessarytoincreasetheinputoftheguidingfundsininfrastructureconstructionandrelatedareasandtoexpeditetheexplorationfornewmechanismstoattract,withlimitedfiscalfunds,asmuchsocialfundsaspossibletoinvestinthepublicsectorswelfare....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.省发展改革委关于省十三届人大二次会议第30号建议的答复(黔发改议复字〔2019〕102号) ,sagriculture,thisreportadoptstheChinaAgriculturalandTradePolicySimulationModelwhichisbasedonourresearchgroupsimprovementontheCountryProjectionsandPolicyAnalysisSimulationModel(CPPA)(hereinafterreferredtoasCATP).CATP,asectorbalancemodel,ismainlyappliedtoassessingimpactoftradepolicyreformontheproduction,,functioningtheory,:(1).China,,itsurbanizationlevelwillberaisedby1%annuallyin2000-2030,withthelevelreaching60%;(2).%in2000-2005and7%in2005-2015;(3).::1in2005-2015;(4).Itsannualrealgrowthrateofsci-techinputintoagricultureisexpectedtobeat5%;(5)Itsannualrealgrowthra%;and(6)%..eralizationofdomesticagricultureproducemarketonthefutureofChinasmilkindustry,wehavedesignedthreevariationsofformulas,namely:BaselineFormula,’smilkindustryunderthestatusquopolicy,theWTOIFormulaintendstoprojecttheeffectundercurrenttermsreachedduringChina’,however,goesastepfurthertodrawapictureintheeventofChina’spossiblecommitmenttofull-scaletradeliberalizationina’saccessiontoWTOandtheloomingagriculturalinternationalizationwkproducts,along-rangeprospect,however,,%%,thoughtheadverseeffectoftradeliberalizationwillstillbefeltthereafterinoutputvalue,%%by2010undert%%smore,%asmilkproducts,cuttingdownthenetincomeoftheformer,,theWTOIandWTOIIformulaswoulddrivedowntheproducers’%%respectively,%%,%%,thisworseningtendencywouldbeputunder%,declineinproducers’priceswouldbringadvantagestoconsumerstothetuneof732millionyuan,%increaseofoverallconsumptionby2005,%%%%%,%%,%%,%%’,,thecorrespondingfiguresofthethreevariationsofformulaswouldbe931kilotons,,,,%%overtheBaselineFormulaby2005,%%%%,,%%overtheBaselineFormulaby2005,%%%%,,accessiontoWTOwillpushChinasmilkindustryforwardtoparticipatingineconomicglobalization,ngaspects:Firstly,comparedwiththedevelopedcountries,China’smilkindustryisstillintheinitialstagesofarasthetechnologicallevelofproductionandprocessingisconcerned,,importsofmilkproductsmayrisefromcountriesandregionswithlowerproductioncosts,thusbringingpressureonChina,directshockwavesfromimportsofliquidmilkwouldbemodest,however,,theincreasinglyevidenttendencyofglobalizationwouldbringaboutenormousexpansionopportunitiestoChina’illdriveupcostinthedevelopedcountri’smilkindustrybyattractingforeigncapital,’smilkindustrytoimproveproductiontechnology,equipment,,reorganizationandrestructuringofthesectorwillspeedup,bigenterprisegroupandnamebrandswillemergeandinterna,moreintensemarketcompetitionwouldpropeltransformationofmechanismandspeedup’smilkindustryinafundamentalmanner.(Excerptsfromresearchreport"ImplementationofWTOAgreement:AssessingEconomicImpactonChina’sMilkIndustry,"byChenGuoqiangetal.,theResearchDepartmentofRuralEconomy.)Ministry of Agriculture of the Peoples Republic of China LuZhiqiangResearchReport,,2000(Total1284)–,utit,:,aGerman,consideredthatglob,mostscholarsconsideredthatglobalizationshouldhavebegunfromthefirstindustrialrevolutionattheendofthe18thcentury,"globalization"firstappearedin1944,,accordingly,thatglobalizationtookshapeinthhtworldwideattentioninthe20thcenturywhereasthethirdjudgemento,thereareglaringgapsinpeople’sworldwidebecomeincreasinglycloserandthodeofproductionandtheenlargementofthemarketeconomicsystemintheentireworld,therefore,globalizationmeansWesternization,,theLisbongroupcomposingofscholarsfrommanycountriesconsiderthatglobalizationincludesthefollowingsevenaspects:theglobalizationofthepossessionoffinanceandcapital,theglobalizationofmarketandmarketstrategy,theglobalizationoftechnology,relatedscientificresearchanddevelopmentaswellasknowledge,theglobalizationoflivingstyleandthemodeofconsumptionaswellasculturallife,theglobalizationoftheadjustmentcapabilityandpoliticalcontrol,theglobalizationoftheworl,economy,science,technology,,thereislessdisagreementoneconomicglobalization,however,itcouldonlyberoughlydefinedasfollows:theinter-countryflowofcommodities(includingservices),informationandfactorsofproduction,theincreasingdegreeofmutualdependenceoftheeconomiesofallcountries,tcloseattentionwasmainlyattributedtothreephenomenathatemergedinandafterthemid-1980sintheworldeconomy:First,,theglobalcapitaltransactionvolumewasonlyUS$5,000billion,itincreasedsharplytoUS$35,000billionin1992,andisexpectedtoreachoverUS$80,mentCo,thetotalamountofmarketcapitalofthe48largestsecurityexchangesintheworldstoodatUS$31,700billionattheendof1999,surpassingtheworldgrossnationalproductforthefirsttime,andals,itsgrowthrate,,theaveragegrowthrateofgrossdomesticproductwas1%,buttheaverageannualgrowthrateofexportvolumeinglobaltradewasashighas6%%intheyear2000,higherthantheworldeconomicgrowthrate(%).Inaddition,thetradestructurealsounderwentadrasticchange,servicetradeemergedanddevelopedfast,%andaccountingfor20%,,thedevelopmentofdirectinvestmentoverseasandtheotheractivitiesbymultinationalcompaniessurpassedthegrowthrateoftheworldGDPandtrade,thegrowthrateofthesalesvolumeoftheiroverseasbenceoftheworldeconomy,itsinfluenceovertookthatofinternationaltrade,thusrewrit,theworldpoliticalenvironmentunderwentdramaticchanges,,thedétenteofinternationalrelationsprovidedafavorableinternationalenvironmentforthedevelopmentoftheworldeconomy,economicdevelopmenthasbecomeanurgenttaskforallcountries,nAsiaservedasamodelencouragingmoreandmoredevelopingcountriestoimitatethedevelopmentm,theformerrepublicsoftheSovietUnionandEasternEuropeancountriesaswellasthemajorityofsocial,thebreakthroughsinscienceandtechnoloessinoceantransportationandairtransporttechnologiesinthe1980sand1990sgreatlyredu,duringthe1990-1997period,thetransportcostofexportingcommoditiesworldwideaccountedformerely2%,long-distancetelephonecallchargefromNewYorktoLondonperthreeminutesdroppedfromUS$330in1930tomerelyUS$ductionlayoutandmanagementpossible.

            ZhangWenkuiResearchReportNo151,1329China’,thetotalnumberoflistedcompaniesinChinaisonlyalittlemorethan1,,thesecompaniesholdanevermoreimportantpositioninChinasnationaleconomy,andtheireconomica,therestructuringoflistedcompaniesisgettingpopular,havingposedaneye-catchingphenomenoninChinaseconomiclife,,thenumberofcasesofrestructuringofChina’,thenumberofmajorrestructuringcaseshit148asquotedintheNoticeonStandardizingListedCompaniesMajorPurchases,China’slistedcompaniesareuniqueintermsoftheirequitystructure,performanceandmanagement,ticsanddigouttherootoftheproblemsthatdogtherestructuringofChina’’sListedCompaniesAlthoughrestructuringofChina’slistedcompaniesstartedin1993,,BaoAncorporationp%to18%,ation,,anotherformofrestructuringwithChinesecharacteristicswasinventedbyHengTongCorporationwhenitpurchasedLingGuangCorporation:negotiatedtransferofth,%%ofthestate-heldsharesoftheShanghaiLingguangIndustrialCompany,theparentcompanyofLingGuang,,there,someChina’slistedcompaniesfoundthemselvesinfinancialdifficultyin1995and1996andsomeeveninred,whichgaverisetoaspecialtreatmentgroup(knownastheSTcompaniesonthestockmarket).Theemergenceoftheloss-incurringcompaniesandtheSTgroupmeantthatsomelistedcompanieswouldbedisqualringonregionaleconomies,localgovernmentswouldtryeverymeanstokeeptheirlistedcompaniesgoingonthestockmarketortoqualifythemforallotment,whichinturnledtothe,theShanghaiMunicipalGovernmenttooktheleadinthecountrytoproposetherestructuringoflistedcompaniesinfinancialmirestoretaintheir"shell"andqualifythemfortheallotmentofnewshares,andalsopickedoutagroupoflistedcompaniessuchasZhongChengShiYeandLianHeShiYe,lGovernmentwascopiedbyonelocalgovernmentafteranother,ofpolarizationamongenterprises,restructuringmastermindedbylocalgovern’slistedcompaniesisviewedbroadly,itcanbediscov’slistedcompaniesarefairlyspecialintermsoforigin,relationshipwiththegovernment,financialpreference,’"Keepshellforallotmentandborroworbuyshell"AfairlylargenumberofcasesofrestructuringofChina’slistedcompanieshavebeeninitiatedtowardthegoalofkeepinglistedcompaniesinactionorqualifyingthemfortheallotmentofnewshares,orsellingsharesunderthe"shell",Chineseenterprisesh,thestockmarketsofthecountryarestillattheirearlystageofdevelopmentandgenerallyinshortsupply,thestockmarkethassmallrestrictionstoandpressureonlistedcompanies,thecostsforraisingfundsthroughstocktradingaremuchsmallerthanthosefordirectloans,andalmostnoresponsibilitiesareinvolved,,however,Chineseenterprisesfacemuchtighterrestrictionsthan,somelatecomersandnewlyestablishedhi-techornon-governmentalenterprises,inparticular,,the"shell""shell"resourcesbyrestructuring,ortotakethechanceofrestructuringtoseize,keepholdof,ormakefulluseofthese"shell"resourcescontinuallyisinlinewithboththeinterehofsomeotherstothnstitutionalequitiesisthemainmodeofrestructuringofChina’slistedcompanies,and’a’slistedcompaniesaccountforabout62%ofthetotal,negotiatedtransferofstate-ownedandinstitutionalequitieshasnaturallybecomeamodeofrestructuringthatcanb,thismodecane,,andisconducivetothepromotionoftherestructuringofChina’,however,toexposetheinterestsofsmallshareholderstoharmswhencomparedwithacquisitiononthesecondarymarket.澳门永乐下载关于举办职业技能提升行动培训班的通知(杭州) LuZhongyuanResearchReportNo139,2002Abstract:Thisarticlefirstanalysedthestatisticindicators,includingthegrowthrateofdomesticnon-governmentinvestment,itsproportionintotalsocialinvestmentasbeenacceleratinganwthofnon-governmentinvestment,andeventuallyputforwardseveral:non-governmentinvestmentstatusproposalStatisticalanalysesdemonstratethatnon-governmentinvestmenthasbeenacceleratinginrecentlyyearsanditsproportreasing,,,thegrowthofnon-governme,ofinvestmentsmadebythestateeconomy,theforeign,HongKong,MacaoandTaiwaninvestorsandthetotalsociety;ofwhich,,Chinahassuccessivelyissuedtreasurybondsintheinvestmentsectortopullthegrowthofoveralldemandforinvestment,,totalsocialinvestmentincreasedby13%,,withmajorbeneficiarybeingthestateeconomy,treasurybondsinvestm,peoplehavebeenw,however,itwasonlyin1998thatthegrowthofinvestmentmadebythestateeconomywash,therespectiveratesofgrowthofinvestmentsmadebythecollective,privateandothereconomieswereallhigherthanthatofthestateeconomyingeneral;ofwhich,thegrowthofinvestmentmadeby"othereconomies"wasover28%fortwoconsecutiveyears(seeTable1).Amongvarioustypesofeconomies,,,%,investmentmadebytheforeign,HongKong,,%.Theaveragegrowthrateofdomesticnon-governmentinvestmentisnotonlyhigherthanthatofthestateeconomy,,th%,%,%%;%,%,%%perannum,givingasharpcontrasttotheslowingdowngrowthofstateinvestment.

            WangMengkuiWhatwearediscussingatthisforumisnotonlyacrucialtaskforbuildingawell-offsocietyinanall-roundway,butasubstantiveissueforachievingindustrializationandmodernizati’smodernizationtobuildawell-offsocietyinanall-roundway,accomplishmodernizationgradually,whileconcentratingoureffortsontheissuesconcerningagriculture,ruralareasandfarmers,,weusedtotackletheissueonthestrengthofagriculturalproduction,butnowweshouldapplywaysofindustrialization,,wewilluseadvancedtechnologyintransformingagricultureandoverallruraleconomy;wewillmovealargenumberofrurallabortonon-agriculturalsectorsbyurbanization;wewilladheretothereforminthedirectionofsocialistmarketeconomy;andwewillincorporateru,transferringenormousrurallaborerstonon-agriculturalsectors,andgraduallychangingthedualstructureofurbanandruraleconomnd,inwhichtheprioritygiventoheavyindustryresultedinthedecreaseoflaborabsorbedbyunitcapital,andthemovementfororganizationofpeoplemonopolyofpurchaseandmarketingandthepolicyofsegmentationofurbanandruralareas,makingthecountry’,,,thecountryhasstartedtoloosenitspolicy,,thepopulationincitiesandtownssurged210million,,theproportionofagriculturall(comparedwith18percentin1978bycalculatingwithnon-comparablefactors)in2000,,nowtherateofurbanizationisstillaround10percentagepointslowerthantheworldaveragelevel,andalsoevidentlybeovementoflaborforcecontributedapproximately16percenttotheeconomicgrowthrateofoverninepercentinthelast20yearsofthe20thcentury,,enhancedtheinternationalcompetitivenessofChineseindustrialproducts,,urallaborandspeedupurbanization,soastoprovidtheobjectiveofaccomplish,from2000-2020theproportionoftheprimaryindustryinChina’,,,theproportionofagriculturallaborforceintheentireemployedpopulationwillfallfrom50percentto30-35percent,,whiletherateofurbanizati,wecanachievesuchprogressofurb,,withquitealargenumberofpopulation,Chinaisnowexperiencingadualtransitionofeconomicsystemreformandeconomicrestructuring,whichbroughtaboutheavypressureofemploymentandspecialdifficulties,,urbanizationwillexhibitavarietyoftransitionalshapes:alargenumberofagriculturallaborerswillmovetonon-agriculturalsectors;theemploymentformswillbevarious;manypeoplewillnotleavetheirfarmlandsoquickly;soyinruralareas,,andprudentlytransfe,butweshouldhaveanoverallplanningwithaviewtousingiteconomically,andprotectingfarmers’,thefeespaidfortakingrurallandaccountedforasmallshare,,50percentoftheappealsfiledbyfarmerstothehigherauthoritiesforhelpwererelatedtothetransferoflanduseright,,andthesourceforsomeplacestobuildvarious"imageprojects".Thatiswhytheincomesoffasses,someofwhichhavebecometheprimitiveaccumulationforindustrialization,whileothersf,theprimitiveaccumulationwillnotbemuch;whileinthelongterm,,thestabilizationofruralsociety,increaseoffarmers’incomes,andexpansionofruralmarketwillguarant,thesubjectsalsoincludetheruraleducationalexpenditure,statefinanceandtaxationsystem,,weshouldhaveanoverallplanningontheurbanandruraldevelopment,andappropriatelyinfavoroffarmersandruralareasindealingwiththerelationshanization....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.--------------------------------------------------------------------------------*Thisistheauthor’saddressattheForumof"UrbanizationwithChineseCharacteristics"jointlyheldbytheDevelopmentResearchCenteroftheStateCouncilandtheEconomicsDailyonSeptember14,2003.广西壮族自治区发展和改革委员会 金马国际官網ChenXiwenResearchReport,,2000(Total1282)Duringthe9thFive-YearPlanperiod,anoverallbalancewasachievedbetweenthesupplyanddemandofmajoragriculturalproducts,’sagriculture,whichforlong-termtookthesupplyofsufficientfoodandclothingtothepeopleasitsfundamentaltarget,wouldnowenteran’sagriculture,andtheruralareasasawhole,,andsomehaveresultedfromthesurfacingofsomedeeplyrootedconickenthepaceofsystemandorganizationinnovationwillbethekeytosmoothadvanceofChina’sagricultureandruralworkasawholeintoanewperiodofdevelopment,andthecentraltaskinChina’dbasicappr(1).Glaringcontradictionbetandinattentiontoqualitativeoptimizationforlongyearsinthepasthasobviouslybeenrestrictedbydemand.(2).,townshipenterpriseshavegrownnoticeablywe,therurallabourforcehassufferedasetbackinitstransfertosecondaryandtertiaryindustries,andthetotalnumberofemployeesinagriculturehasbouncedback.(3).Increasingdifficultiesinthegrowthofthefarmers’,thegrowthofaverageper-capitanetincomeoffarmershassloweddownandtheruralareaasawholehassunkintoasituationofearningeverlessfromagricultureandrelyingmershasshrunkfortwoyears.(4).Aggravatingpressu,thepricesofcereals,oilsandotherstapleagricultur’sentryintotheWorldTradeOrganization,pressuresfromthisdirectionwillnoticeablyaggravate.(5).Wideningdiscrepancybetweenthe’stownsandvillagesarebasicallyorganizati,however,areoutward-orientedbusinessoperationorganizationsfromwhichtheycangetmarketinformation,technicalandfundsupport,,theestablishmentoffullgovernmentsatthetownlevelhasledtoaswellingoforganizations,staffandexpenditures,broadmassesofpeopleintheruralareas.(6).Growingdistancebetweenasupportiveandprotectiveagriculturalsystemcharacterizedmainlybypriceprot,governmentswouldshoulderheavierburdens,governmentsubsidiescouldhardlygodirectlytofarmers,,thispractimentduringthe10thFive-YearPlanperiodThebasicapproachofthoughtsaboutagriculturalandruraldevelopmentatpresentandinthenearfuturehasbeendefinedbythedecisionmadeatthe3rdPl,specialattentionshouldbepaidtothreeissues:(1).Itshouldbestressedthatthestrengtheningofagricu,thecomprehensiveproductioncapacityofChina’,inparticular,ingrainproductionforfiveyears,,itwouldbeeasyforblindoptimismtodevelop,Five-YearPlanperiodhasitsinevitability,butitisalsoattributabletosomespecialfactors,suchassubstantialincreaseofthepricesofgovernmentpurchases,unlimitedpurchaseofgrainatprotectiveprices,,however,thegrowthofthepopulation,decreaseofcultivatedland,shortageofwater,,themarketsan,specialattentionshouldbepaidtostrengtheningthebasicpositionofagriculture,protectingandincreasinggrainproductioncapacityduringthe10thFive-YearPlanperiod,periodshouldbeconcentratedmoreonimprovementoftheproduction,livingandmarketconditionsofagricultureandtheruralareasasawhole,promotionofagriculturalscienceandtechnologyandpopularizationofadvancedandapplicabletechnology,establishmentofasystemforcollectionanddisseminationofinformationaboutthemarketsofagriculturalproductsandasystemofqualitystandardsforagriculturalproducts,anddevelopm,thefocusshouldbeputonimprovementofthecomprehensivequalityofagriculture,thequalityofagriculturalproductsandefficiencyofagriculture,andtheincomeoffarmers.成都市教育局关于第一批市属高校重点教学实验(实训)室和重点学科(专业)立项建设的通知 LuWeiResearchReportNo160,2000Difficultiesinfund-raisingbysmallandmedium-sizedenterprises(“SMEs”):First,someoftheseenterprisesdonothavesufficientmortgages,,,mostofthebusinessesundertakenbytheseenterprisesareofacompetitivecharacter,inwhichbankruptcyratioandbigrisksinfund-raisingarecomparativelyhigh,,thegovernmentsofmanycountrieshaveformulatedcorrespondingpo,includingcreditguaranteewithgovernmentparticipation,mutualguaranteebetweenSMEsthemselves,,thegovernmentsofmanycountriesandregionshavetakentheestablishmentofacreditguaranteesystemforSMEswithgovernmentparticipationasanimportantpolicytosupportSMEs,tes,JapanandTaiwanProvinceofChinaTheUnitedStates,JapanandTaiwanhavea,however,tparticipation(1).Withgovevernmentallocations,orsuppliedbygovernments,financialinstitutions,,thefundsearmarkedforSmallBusinessCreditGuaranteeProgramintheUnitedStatesareprovideddirectlybythefed,thecapitalfundsofthecoffersofcreditinsurancefinancialcoffersofSMEs,localgovernments,,thedonationtionsfromthegovernment,banks,andfinancialinstitutions,withgovernmentdonationsaccountingfor80percentofthetotal.(2).Itisnotanecessitythatallguaranteeinstitutionsfun,thefundsoftheSmallBusinessCreditGuaranteePrograminitiatedbythefederalgovernmentoftheUnitedStatescomeexclusivelyfromappropriationsofthefederalgovernmentbutareexecutedandmanagedbytheSmallBusinessAdministration,,thefundscomefromtheirrespectivegovernments,butareactuallyoperatedbyassociations,fundsandotherspecializedorganizations,underthesupervisionofgovernmentadministrations.(3).Theguarante,intheUnitedStatesandTaiwanProvince,thesystemofone-tierguaranteeinstitutionswithlocalbrancheshasbeenintroduced,whileinJapan,thesystemofmulti-tierguaranteehasbeeninstalled:guaranteefromthecreditinsurancecoffersattcetolocalcreditguaranteeassociations,withthereinsuranceratiostandingat70-80percent.(4).TheformsoalappropriationstoreplenishthecreditguaranteefundsforSMEs,withcompensationsforgua,thefederalgovernmentoftheUnitedStatesmakesbudgetary,however,haveanirregularsourceoffundreplenishment,,therefore,compensationsforguaationAlltheprojectsofcreditguarantees,governmentguaranteeprogramsallcontainclear-cutrequirementonthesizesandcharactersoftheobjectsofguarantee,andalltheg,itisclarifiedthatemphasiswouldbeputonenterprisesthatcannotobtainloansorfundingthroughnormalchannelsoffund-raising,referringmainlytothosesmallenterprisest,allguaranteeprogramshaonofemployment,supporttoSMEsinexportandtechnicalupgrading,replenishmentofseasonalworkingcapital,fdevelopmentandadoptdifferentmanagementsystems,,theguaranteeprogramoftheUnitedStatesisdesignedtoprovideguaranteetosomespecialcommunities,includingenterprisesrunbywomen,thedisabled,demobilizedarmymenorminoritypeople,,istailoredtotheindustrialpoliciesofthegovernmentandbasedmainlyindustrialpolicies,,itemsofguaranteetoundertakingsofcreationbyyoungpeopleanddevelopmentofnamebrandsbyenterpriseshavebeenestablishedunderthecreditguaranteefundsinlinewiththegovernmentprogramforthedevelopmentofSMEs,focusingonsupporttosmallbusinessofanewundertakingcharacter....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.

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            现代生活 : LiuShijin,FengFei,ShiYaodong,YangJianlongandQianPingfanResearchReportNo083,,China’smanufacturingindustry’’smanufacturingindustryhasvisiblecomparativeadvantages(whichvaryfromsectortosector),,theyaremanifestedinthestrengthofthelarge-scaleprocessingandassemblysectorsthataremovingtowardin-depthprocessingandinthescaleandpotentia,thesecomparativeadvantageshavebecomeChina’,withinthemanufacturingindustry,differentsectorsdifferconsiderablyfromeachotherinindustrialmaturity,,candeterminethelong-termtrendandthebasicpatternofinternationaldivisionoflabor,tionfactorssuchaseconomicsystem,,thefactorsthataffectChina’sindustrialcompetitiveness,especiallyitsdynamiccomparativeadvantagesandcompetitiveadvantages,,thefactorssuchasthetrendofindustrialinternationalizationandglobalization,thedegreeofmarketization,thedegreeofmarketopening,thedegreeofindustrialmaturity,thepotentialofdomesticdemandandthedynamiccomparativeadvantagewillhaveamoredirectandvisibleimpactomprehensivelyevaluatethenear-term,medium-termandlong-termim:(1)anindustrialdevelopmentprospectassessmentmethodagainstthebackgroundofWTOaccessionthatcanbeuniversallyappliedtodifferentindustrialsectorssoastocarryouthorizontalcomparisonofallindustrialsectorsunderthesamecoordinatesystem;(2)acombinationofthestudyofshort-termpolicyoptionswiththestudyoflong-termtrendssoastobroadenthehorizonsofourstudyandtoaccuratelychartalong-termdevelopmentorientationofvarioussectorsofthemanufacturingindustryafterWTOaccession;(3)adefinitionoftheorientationandbasicprinciplesofgovernmentpolicyadjustmentinthefuturethroughtheassessmentofChina’sManufacturingIndustryafterWTOAccessionOurbasicideaaboutthemethodofassessingtheindustrialdevelopmentprospectafterWTOaccessionistomake,throughacomprehensiveassessmentofthefollowingsixindicators,anoveralljudgmentontheshort-term,medium-termandlong-termimpact(bothpositiveandnegative)ofWTOaccessiononvarioussect:(orinternationalization).Thecharacteristicsofglobalization(orinternationalization)aremeanttodeterminewhetheraspecificindustry’sresearchanddevelopment,manufacturing,procurement,salesservices,investment,trade,financingandot,wecancometosuchajudgmentthatthemoredistinctiveanindustry’scharacteristicsofglobalizationorinternationalizationare,themorelikelysuchanindustryissubjecttotheimpactofWTOaccessionandthedegreeofsuchanimpactisdeterminedbythedegreeofdomesticindustries’sofglobalization,thescopeandmethodofresourceallocationofitsi,suchadoationorhavemorecharacteristicsoflocalization,theyarelikelytobelessseverelyaffectedbyWTOacce,wecansayforcertainthatfromaglobalperspective,thechemicalindustryobviouslyhavemorecharacteristicsofglobalizati,WTOaccessionislikelytohaveamoresevereimpactonChina’schemicalin,includingtariffconcession,theremovalofnon-tariffmeasures,marketaccess,investmentliberalizationandfacilitation,theprotectionofintellectu,weneedtospecificallypinpointwhetherthesecharacteristicsaremanifestedintheareaofinvestment,orintheareaofproductandservicetrade,dmechanismofresourceallocationofaspecificindustryaredeterminedbymark:(1)marketaccess,whethertheprocessofproductionfactorsenteringintoorexitingfromacertainindustryisfreeandsmoothandwhetherthereexistadministrativerestrictionsontheentryandexitotherthanthecapitalandtechnologicalthresholds;(2)pricecontrol,whetherthepricesofproductsandproductionfactorsaresetbymarketorbygovernment;(3)ownershipstructure,whetheraspecificindustryisdominatedbystateownershiporissharedbydiverseformsofownership;(4)marketintegration,whetherthema,wecaneasilymakeabasicjudgmentthatanindustrywithahigherdegreeofmarketizationwillbelessseverelyaffectedbyWTOaccession....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.--------------------------------------------------------------------------------s(whichmeansland,naturalresources,laborforce,capitalandotherfactorsofproductionbasicallyunchanged),acountrycanreapmaximumbenefitifitproducesandexportstheproductsthatareproducedwiththemostintensivefactorsofitsownandimpo,dynamicadvantageemphasizesthatinadynamicsequenceoftime,thechangesinthetotalquantity,qualityandstructureofacountry’sfactorscaninducechangesinthecountry’ssupplystructure,,modeanddegreeofthechangesinthetotalquantity,qualityandstructureoffactors,thetheoriesofdynamiccomparativeadvantagesandstrategictradehavebecomeoneofthebasicreasonsforgovernmentstointerveneinthedevelopmentofacountry’sownindustries.

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            兼崎健太郎:Source:thefiguresfor1986wereesti“ElectronicsIndustryYearBook”forfiguresforthe“SeventhFive-YearPlan”andfor1991~,fastgrowthandledbyPC,isbasicallyconsistentwiththeinternationaltrend,thedifferencebeingonlythattherap,theproportionofPCinthecomputermarketisnearly90%inChina,whichishigherthanthatintheUSandJapan,whereitisabout70%.grewrapidlyfrommerelyUS$640millionin1991toUS$$80millionin1993toUS$,includingoverseas-fundedenterprises,ticsoftheformerElectronicsMinistry,computerandconcernedproductsinChinain1996weresoldtocustomerswiththefollowingproportions:financial/insuranceandmanufactureindustries18%,serviceindustry9%,transportation8%,telecommunications8%,educationandresearchinstitutions7%,energyandgovernmentorganisations6%,andhouseholds4%.However,thepr,ofthePCsalesinChina,%in1997andwillbeover30%by2000.(II)Thecomputerindust,cationoftheformationofanindustryistysystemwasonly191in1991withatotalemploymentoflessthan100,,thenumberofenterprisesconductingdevelopment,manufacture,sales,consultationserviceofcomputerandrelatedproductsreached15,000in1995,withanemploymentof300,,morethan1,000manufacturersemployedsome100,000staff,morethan1,000softwareenterprisesemployed80,000staffandsome13,000enterprisesinsalesandserviceemployedsome120,000staff....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.金马国际官網ChenXiwenHanJunResearchReportNo072,ralAreasandProvideEffectiveSupportforStrategicAgriculturalRestructuringOurinvestigationsinthethreecounties(XiangyangcountyofHubeiprovince,YanlingcountyofHenanprovince,TaihecountyofJiangxiprovince)showthatinthetraditionalagriculturalregions,theiradvantageingrainandcottonproductionhasbeenwaningandtheirefficiencyhasbeendec,theroadtoincreasingtheincomeoff,,thelackofanunimpededmarketingsystemforagriculturalproductsandtheabsenceofasoundagriculturals,itis,thecentralgovernmentexplicitlyadvocatedinitspo,despitemanyyearsofhardwork,thegoalofreturningthesecooperativesasawholetothenormsofeconomicorganizations(suchastheprivateeconomyandtheself-organizedcooperativeeconomicorganizations).Therefore,itiswrongtomerelyemphasizethatspeci,itispreferabletoproceedfromtheactualconditionsoftheruralareasandcarryoutnecessaryad,thereisneitherapropertyownershiprelationbetweenthesupplyandmarketingcooperativesatvariousleve"legs",notasinglepersonraisedtheionsisinfactdegenerating,the,thegrassrootscooperativeswhereconditionspermitm,,itisperhapspreferabletodefinethemasprivateenterprisesthatmaketheirownmanageme,mostoftheseenterprisesarenotedforlackingaseparationofgovernmentadministrationfromcorporatemanagement,aseparationofpolicy-orientedoperation,overstaffingandinefficienatingenterprisesistotrulyseparatetheirpolicy-orientedoperationsfromcommercialo,theseenterprisesa,itisnecessarytotransformtheseenterprisesintojoint-stockcompaniesassoonaspossiblesotdoptd,thestate-ownedgrain-operatingenterprisesshouldencouragefarmerstogrowcropsonacontractbasissoastointegratepurchasing,,andenterprisesofdifferentformsofownershipshoate-ownedgrain-operatingenterprises,itisnecessarytochangestlyandthatacceptinganeelfareendeavor,,itisneces,,itisnotag"threedelimitations"(personnel,organizationalstructureandbudget):th,theemphaspecializedpersonnel,,innovationshouldbemadetoenablethesystemtocarryouttechnicalcontractingaersonnelareguaranteedbygovernmentfinanceandthatagro-technicalextensionofapublicwelfarenatureisguaranteed....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.   2019-11-16 09:01:53

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            高弁:LongGuoqiangResearchReportNo080,2002Fordiversevariablesincludingthestagesofeconomicdevelopment,competitivenessofenterprises,thesituationofinternationalpayments,linkswithregionalintegration,andforeignpolicies,differentcountriesadoptpoliciesonencouraginginvestmentabroadwithdifferentobjectives,,policiesonencouraginginvestmentabroadcanbeclassifiedasinformationandtechnicalassistance,financialsupportandinvestmentinsurance,financialsupport,’scurrentpoliciesonencouraginginvestmentabroadandtheirevaluationAsacountryexercisingforeignexchangecontrol,Chinah,however,ithasgraduallyloosenedcontroloverinvestmentinsomespecialfieldsinforeigncountriesina,therewasevenahightideofinvesicreturnsfromanoverallpointofview,however,,ChinaimplementedthestrategyofencouragingenterprisestoengageinforeignbusinessesofprocessingandassemblywithmaterialsfromChina,whichaimedatincreasingexports(processingandassemblywithmaterialsfromChinareferstothepracticeofinternationaleconomicandtradecooperationbyspurringandincreasingexportofChineseequipment,technology,componentpartsandrawmaterialsthroughengagementofChineseenterprisesinforeignbusinessesofprocessingandassembly,usingtechnologyandequipmentasmajoritemsofinvestment),(1)CurrentsituationInformationserviceonoverseasinvestmentcomesmainlyfromChineseembassiesinforeigncountries,andtheinformationcoversmainlythemacroeconomyandmarketdemandinforeigncountries,,suchasthemediaincludingtheInternationalBusinessNewspaperandtheofficial,especiallythoseapplyingfortheCentralForeignTradeDevelopmentFunds,foreign-aidfunds,joint-ventureandcooperativeprojectsfundsofforeignaid,itisrequiredintheproceedingsofapplicationthatassessmentopinionsbeprovidedbythecommercialofficeoftheChineseembassiesconcernedsoastoprovideinformationabouttheprojectsinthecondEconomicCooperationhaveformulatedandpromulgatedthe(FirstBatchof)CatalogsofProductsEncouragedbytheStatetoBeProcessedorAssembledabroadwithChineseMaterials,andarenowworkingontheDatabankofProjectsofProcessingandAssemblyabroadwithChineseMaterialsandwillpublishitat,theChineseGovernmenthastriedtoincludenegotiationsoninves’98XiamenInternationalTradeandInvestmentFairheldin2001,forinstance,nmicandTradeCommissi,forinstance,providesasubsidyofRMB100,000everyyeartocompensateforcostsoffront-endstudiesandclear-upofsitesforprocessingandassemblyproductsabroadwithChinesematerials.(2)BriefcommentsAlthoughtheChineseGovernmenthasbeenprovidinginformationservicesonoverseasinvestmentforquitealongtime,,theinformationitcollectsisfragmentalandscrappybecaus,thevalueofquitealotofinformationit,t,forinstance,privateoverseasinvestmentcompaniesaremainlyresponsibleforprovidinginformationservicesonoverseasinvestment,,however,,therearenoauthorizedorunifiedchannelsforthereleaseofinformation,asituationattributabletotheabs,,suchasorganizationofdelegationstomakeinspectiontoursandconclusionofagreementsondevelopmentofindustrialparkswithinvestinghosts,hasbeenconductedbyonlyaverysmallnumberoflocalgovernmentsinChina,,(1)CurrentpoliciesonfinancialincentivesChinaprovidesthefollowingfinancialsupporttoChineseenterprisesengaginginprocessingandassemblingabroadwithChinesematerials:First,ChinesebanksareallowedtoragEngagementintheBusinessofProcessingandassemblingabroadwithChineseMaterials,itisstipulatedthatcommercialbanksandtheimportandexportbanksmaylendlong,mediumandshort-termloanstoenterprisesqualifiedtotakenlyforpurchasingequipmentandtechnologyforbuildingfac(includingoneyear)shallbeusedmainlyforpurchasingrawmaterialsandcomponentpartsfromab,,,thebanksmayadoptvariouswaysandmethodstosupportdevel,sforEncouragingEngagementintheBusinessofProcessingandassemblingabroadwithChineseMaterialsthattheinterestratesforloanstosuchprojectsetbytheStateiftheborrowersareexcellentincreditabilityandmanagement,ortheprojectspjoyinterestsubsnessesofProcessingandAssemblingAbroadwithChineseMaterialsformulatedjointlybytheMinistryofForeignTradeandEconomicCooperation,StateEconomicandTradeCommissionandtheMinistryofFinancethatenterprisestakingupbusinessesofprocessingandassemblingabroadwithChinesematerialsmayreceivepreferentialloansofaforeign-aidtype,whicharelongandmedium-termloansishedbythePeople’sBanrestforForeignExchangeLoansBorrowedbyEnterprisesEngagedinProcessingTradeAbroadasWorkingCapital,jointlypromulgatedbytheMinistryofForeignTradeandEconomicCooperation,theMinistryofFinance,theStateEconomicandTradeCommission,thePeople’sBankofChina,andtheStateAdministrationofForeignExchange,thatthebankslendingtheapprovedforeignexchangeloanstoenterprisesengagedinprocessingtradeabroadshallcalculatetheinterestsatnormalrates,withtheForeignTradeDevelopmentFundprovidinganannual2percentagepointinterestsubsidyfortheseloans....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.   2019-11-16


            刘慧娟:LongGuoqiangResearchReportNo080,2002Fordiversevariablesincludingthestagesofeconomicdevelopment,competitivenessofenterprises,thesituationofinternationalpayments,linkswithregionalintegration,andforeignpolicies,differentcountriesadoptpoliciesonencouraginginvestmentabroadwithdifferentobjectives,,policiesonencouraginginvestmentabroadcanbeclassifiedasinformationandtechnicalassistance,financialsupportandinvestmentinsurance,financialsupport,’scurrentpoliciesonencouraginginvestmentabroadandtheirevaluationAsacountryexercisingforeignexchangecontrol,Chinah,however,ithasgraduallyloosenedcontroloverinvestmentinsomespecialfieldsinforeigncountriesina,therewasevenahightideofinvesicreturnsfromanoverallpointofview,however,,ChinaimplementedthestrategyofencouragingenterprisestoengageinforeignbusinessesofprocessingandassemblywithmaterialsfromChina,whichaimedatincreasingexports(processingandassemblywithmaterialsfromChinareferstothepracticeofinternationaleconomicandtradecooperationbyspurringandincreasingexportofChineseequipment,technology,componentpartsandrawmaterialsthroughengagementofChineseenterprisesinforeignbusinessesofprocessingandassembly,usingtechnologyandequipmentasmajoritemsofinvestment),(1)CurrentsituationInformationserviceonoverseasinvestmentcomesmainlyfromChineseembassiesinforeigncountries,andtheinformationcoversmainlythemacroeconomyandmarketdemandinforeigncountries,,suchasthemediaincludingtheInternationalBusinessNewspaperandtheofficial,especiallythoseapplyingfortheCentralForeignTradeDevelopmentFunds,foreign-aidfunds,joint-ventureandcooperativeprojectsfundsofforeignaid,itisrequiredintheproceedingsofapplicationthatassessmentopinionsbeprovidedbythecommercialofficeoftheChineseembassiesconcernedsoastoprovideinformationabouttheprojectsinthecondEconomicCooperationhaveformulatedandpromulgatedthe(FirstBatchof)CatalogsofProductsEncouragedbytheStatetoBeProcessedorAssembledabroadwithChineseMaterials,andarenowworkingontheDatabankofProjectsofProcessingandAssemblyabroadwithChineseMaterialsandwillpublishitat,theChineseGovernmenthastriedtoincludenegotiationsoninves’98XiamenInternationalTradeandInvestmentFairheldin2001,forinstance,nmicandTradeCommissi,forinstance,providesasubsidyofRMB100,000everyyeartocompensateforcostsoffront-endstudiesandclear-upofsitesforprocessingandassemblyproductsabroadwithChinesematerials.(2)BriefcommentsAlthoughtheChineseGovernmenthasbeenprovidinginformationservicesonoverseasinvestmentforquitealongtime,,theinformationitcollectsisfragmentalandscrappybecaus,thevalueofquitealotofinformationit,t,forinstance,privateoverseasinvestmentcompaniesaremainlyresponsibleforprovidinginformationservicesonoverseasinvestment,,however,,therearenoauthorizedorunifiedchannelsforthereleaseofinformation,asituationattributabletotheabs,,suchasorganizationofdelegationstomakeinspectiontoursandconclusionofagreementsondevelopmentofindustrialparkswithinvestinghosts,hasbeenconductedbyonlyaverysmallnumberoflocalgovernmentsinChina,,(1)CurrentpoliciesonfinancialincentivesChinaprovidesthefollowingfinancialsupporttoChineseenterprisesengaginginprocessingandassemblingabroadwithChinesematerials:First,ChinesebanksareallowedtoragEngagementintheBusinessofProcessingandassemblingabroadwithChineseMaterials,itisstipulatedthatcommercialbanksandtheimportandexportbanksmaylendlong,mediumandshort-termloanstoenterprisesqualifiedtotakenlyforpurchasingequipmentandtechnologyforbuildingfac(includingoneyear)shallbeusedmainlyforpurchasingrawmaterialsandcomponentpartsfromab,,,thebanksmayadoptvariouswaysandmethodstosupportdevel,sforEncouragingEngagementintheBusinessofProcessingandassemblingabroadwithChineseMaterialsthattheinterestratesforloanstosuchprojectsetbytheStateiftheborrowersareexcellentincreditabilityandmanagement,ortheprojectspjoyinterestsubsnessesofProcessingandAssemblingAbroadwithChineseMaterialsformulatedjointlybytheMinistryofForeignTradeandEconomicCooperation,StateEconomicandTradeCommissionandtheMinistryofFinancethatenterprisestakingupbusinessesofprocessingandassemblingabroadwithChinesematerialsmayreceivepreferentialloansofaforeign-aidtype,whicharelongandmedium-termloansishedbythePeople’sBanrestforForeignExchangeLoansBorrowedbyEnterprisesEngagedinProcessingTradeAbroadasWorkingCapital,jointlypromulgatedbytheMinistryofForeignTradeandEconomicCooperation,theMinistryofFinance,theStateEconomicandTradeCommission,thePeople’sBankofChina,andtheStateAdministrationofForeignExchange,thatthebankslendingtheapprovedforeignexchangeloanstoenterprisesengagedinprocessingtradeabroadshallcalculatetheinterestsatnormalrates,withtheForeignTradeDevelopmentFundprovidinganannual2percentagepointinterestsubsidyfortheseloans....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.   2019-11-16


            苏涣:WangMengkuiThemid-andlong-termdevelopmentobjectiveforChinaistobuildawell-offsocietyinanall-roundwayinthefirst20yearsofthe21stcentury(2001-2020)."Well-offsociety"isaconventionalChineseconception,whichreferstoasocialformationthatpeoplehavemorethanadequatefoodandclothingandliveawell-to-dolife,,around75%peopleinurbanandruralareashadreachedmoderateprosperityintheyear2000,theWorldBanks’,whichhasbeenharassingChinesepeopleforhundredsofthousandofyears,,veforChineseeconomicdevel%,GDPwillapproach36,000billionRMBbytheyear2020,whichexceeds4,,thoughChineseeconomicaggregatewillseeagreaterincrease,thepercapitaincomewillremainlow,izedviafourfive-yearplans,,,contentsandapproachesofstateplansalsodifferfromthoseinthepast,(2001-2005)%,and8%,g7%dexceededin2005,astheEleventhFive-YearPlan(2006-2010)eriodof2001-2020,withthelowestof7–%andthehighestaround9%,ownafterwards,t,thosecountriesthatmaintainedahighgrowthspeedthrough40yearsincludeKorea(%),Singapore(%),andThailand(%).Chineseec,Chinawillalsomaintainahighgrowthspeedthrough40yearsaswell,ceandstability."ChinaThreat"conomicgrowthconsistinseveralaspects:,ale,theexploitationofcentralandwesternregionsandrevitalizationofoldindustrialbasesarebeingexpedited,,Chinaconsumedanamountofrolledsteelaccountedfor1/4oftheworldtotal,glassfor1/3,andcementfor40%.Thecontributionratebythemarketfactoriskeepingincreasing,andtheaverageannualgrowthrateofcivilianinvestment(includingprivatelyeconomy,individualeconomy,stockholdingeconomy,collectiveeconomy,combinedmanagementeconomy,andexcludingforeign,HongKong,Macao,Taiwancapital)is20%,,andthesocialsavingscurrentlyexceed10,000billionRMB,r50%,andthatofthenon-state-ownedeconomy(includingforeigncapital)accountsformorethan50%,thenon-state-ownedeconomyintheconsumingfieldsarebeingwidening,,inhabitants’housing,transportation,c,urbanhousingacreageincreased22%,householdcomputersincreased6fold,,;colorTVsetsinpeasants’,refrigeratorsincreased74%,andwashingmachinesincreased45%.Chineseeconomicdevelopmentisimbalanced,anddispa"accumulationofspoondrifts"(onespoondriftpushesanother,andthewavecrestwillbehigherandhigherthroughtheaccumulationofpowerafteroneroundandtheother),andtheproductmarketwillkeeponexpandingforalongtime....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.   2019-11-15


            余莎莎:GuoLihongThefollowingunderstandingcanbereachedovereconomicrestructuring:themajortargetisnottoachievea"morereasonable"economicstructurethroughgovernmentmobilizationoffinancialresourcesofthesociety,buttoestablish,throughreform,transformationandsystembuildup,amechanismthatsuitsftfromthetraditionaloneof"state-drivendevelopment"to"marketbuildup".,thegovernment,ontheonehand,,unlikeinothermarketeconomycountries,thegovernmentpossessesacommercially-activegovernmentcapitalofmiscesworse,asystemofcapitalprovider,thegovernmenthasitsownresponsi,acleardistinctionshouldbemadebetweenthem,,itmayintensifythetraditionalhalistherootcagovernmentfromthoseofenterprises,"completeindependence",asanytypeofenterpri,wheretheownersarenotinthedueplace,thegovernmentwillnaturallyenhanceitsinterventi,theprocessofinterventionisaresultofadministrativechoicesinsteadofmarket,andtheevaluationofperformanceisoft,ital,,earnesteffortsshouldbem,thereisnodifferencebetweensunriseandsunsetindustries,,ifweareunabletoseekaplaceincertainhigh-techindustriesorifsometraditionalindustriesmovegraduallytowarddecline,theonlyreasonisthatthegovernmentfailstoprovidesystemguarantee,andtoalessextent,,"theentryandphaseoutofthegovernmentcapital"and"structuraladjustment".Thisclearlyindicatesthatwhentheenterpriseownersareabsent,yableprofitsofenterprises,,forthegovernmentcapital,theprofitswillultimatelybecomepartofgovernmentreve,whichisthefinancialrootforthtandardfinancialmeansthatbelongstoallownersduringthestrategiceconomicrestructuring,"rushformoneyfromthedepartments"(usuallywhenitcomestotherights)oftheownersinonearea,whileinotherareas(usuallyobligations)romthoseoftheenterprisesandtoachievestrategicrestructuringandreorganizationundersuchcircumstances!sisbasedonadministrativepunitivemeasures,andenterprisesandofficiaedissues,thesimplestco,thecomprehensivedepreciationrateofstate-ownedindustrialenter%,butthefigureplummetedbythreepercentagepoints(%%in1997)inthenexttwotothreeyears,makingthedepreciationrateofstate-ownedenterpriseslowerthanthatintheearlyyearsofthereformdriveinChina(%in1982).In1999whenbusinessconditionsandoperationperformanceweregreatlyimproved,thecomprehensivedepreciationrateofstate-owneda%.Calculatedbythefigureof1994,,thediscountinterestofgov,theywouldaskwell-performingenterprisestoreducethepercentagedeductedfromdepreciationfundsandreportmoreprofitssoastoshowcasetheachievementsbytheentiresectorsordepartmentswhentheya,likeallotheradministrativemeasuresadoptedinthepast,anyattempttoeliminatelossesandincreaseprofitsthroughadministrativemeasureswilleventuallyleadtoinverseadjustmentofenterprisestructuresbysubsidizingthepooratthecostoftherichanddrivingthefastesttorunevenfaster.   2019-11-14


            柴宗辉:金马国际官網Notes:(1),(3),(2),(5)and(7)representpercentagevs.(1);(4),(6)and(8)representproportionvs.(2).Datasources:STATEMENTOFBALANCEOFPAYMENTSbySAFEDuringthe1982-1999period,foreigncapitalreceiptsandpayments(balance),,%,China’scapitalsinflowisinnetterms,andthehugesurplusofforeigncapitalreceiptsandpay,FDIinChinarepresentsthelargestelementforitssurplus,,accountingfor81%,FDIisnotonlythegreatestelementforthesurplusofforeigncapitalreceiptsandpaymentsbutalsothebaseforasustainedsurplusofFDIforalongtime,contributingagreatdealtothegeneralsurplusofChina,anetincreaseisshowninChinasoverseasissuanceofequitysecuritiesandbonds,indi,duringthe1982-1999periodthenetin,%ofthesurplusofforeigncapitals,an,however,adeficitwasrecordedduringthe1996-1999period,mainlyduetoadrasticfallinthesurplusofliabilitiesofsecuritiesinvestmentinthatperiod,,therefore,thatliabilitiesofsecuritiesinvestmentasonesourceofforeigncapitalhavealimitedstimulativeroleinachievi,%ofthebalanceofallforeigncapitalreceiptsandpayments,%ofthetotalsurplusinthebalanceofcapitalreceiptsandpayments,(-),however,,thesurplusofotherinv%ofthatofforeigncapitalsandbeingoneofthethreegr,anditspercentageinthesurplusofforeigncapitalsreducedto45%.Andduringthe1996-1999periodthesurplusofliabilitiesismuchsmallerthanthesurplusofassetsinsize,withitspercentageinthebalanceofforeigncapitalreceiptsandpaymentsfallingto5-6%.Thatmeans,duringtheabove-mentionedtwoperiods,theroleofo,becauseotherinvestmentasaformofintroducingforeigncapitalisusuallysmallerthantheincreaseofassetsinsize,,otherinvestmentisanuncertainfactoraffectingthebalanceofforeigncapitalsandcapitalaccountswhenforeigncapitals(mainlytrade-relatedcredits)areutilizedinsuchform,anditsdrasticdecreaseintimesofuncertaineconomicgrowthmorethanoftengivesrisetoadeficitinotherinvestmentreceiptsandpaymentsandeveninthebalanceofcapitalaccounts....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.   2019-11-14


            高翰森:,China’,investment,consumptionandtheeco,theAsianfinancialcrisis,theglobalsurpluscapacity,theblockofthefundraisingchannelofthenonstate-ownedenterprises,theexpectedfallofthehouseholds,,,itisnecessarytotellwhicharefundamental,whicharederivative,whichareprimaryandatworkforalongperiod,atedcontinuouscycleandfindoutfromtheconfusedandtang’seconomyhasuptonownotbrokenawayfromthefeaturesofthebinaryeconomywiththeincomeofruralhouseholdsamountingtoabout40percentofthatoftheurbanhouseholds,,mostoftheurbanhouseholdsbasicallyhaveenoughtoeatanddresswell,,theexpansionohegrowthofagroupofnewrelatedindustriesandtheupgradingoftlturalsectors,,whichwil,esentstageandthemostimportant“structuralproblem”.Viewedfromthisperspective,thebreakthroughpointofthepresentcycleofeconomiccontractionliesintheearlylaunchingandnurturingofnewgrowthareaswiththepromotio,,viewedfromashorttime(suchasacalendaryear),theoverallsocialdemandconsistsofinvestment,,lring,thatis,onditionifwemake,expandingconsumptioncallsforincreasingtheincomeofthelow-incomeurbanstratonofnewemploymentandinvestmentopportunities,particularlyhigh-incomejobsandinvestmentopportunities(forinstance,encouragingfarmerstoworkincities).Thiswillrelyontheupgradingoftheindustrialstructureandtheprocessofaccelerated,theleadingdrivingforcefortheupgradingoftheconsumptionstruct,$1,,thennowitisnecessarytoencouragethosewho,emphasizingtheupgradingofconsumptionstructuredoesnotdenoteencouragementofconsumptiononly,butalsoinvolvesinstitutionalandpolicyproblemsatdeeperlevels,likeincomedistribution,socialsecurity,financeandtaxation,,macropoliciesarenecessaryallthetime,buttheirroleisquitelimitedinupgradingtheconsumptionstructure(inparticular,themonetarypoliciesdesignedtobringabouteffectstothewholesituation).Whilemaintainingtolerantandeasymacropolicies,stressshouldbeputonpolicyadjustmentand,inemphasizingtheboostingofdomesticdemand,,stressshou,weshouldconcentrateonsolvingtherelatedinstituti,bywhichwewillfindtheleadingforceforexpandingdomesticdemand,readilysolveotherheadachesandenabletheentirenationaleconomytocastoffthecontractioncycle....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.   2019-11-13


            李彦彦:,theresidents’consumerpriceindexhasendednearlyoneyear’’’,,,,pricesofmajorproductionmeansrosesharply,withthegrowthratesofex-factorypricesforindustrialgoodsandpr,,andwillcauseanexcessivelyfastgrowthinpricelevels,thattheabruptSARSepidemicwillparticularlyexertpowerfulimpactsontheeconom,mand,promotethereadjustmentoftheeconomicstructure,preventthedevelopme,pricesofmajorproductsareshowingatrendofincrease,demonstratingthefollowingcharacteristics:’Consumerpriceshavestoppeddecreasingandrevertedtoanupwardspiralmainlybecauseofthepullofpricesofvegetables,,vegetablepricesinparticular,,suchastobacco,liquor,clothing,,,,whilepricesofcommunicationsequirices,theresidents’,ex-factorypri’,,,asaresultoftheendoftheIraqWar,fallofcrudeoilpricesandtheimpactsofSARSepidemic,pricesofcrudeoilandsteelproductssloweddowninrising,,,,,whichmeansthatthepricedeclineiswalkingoutoftheebbandwillexertpositiveimpactsonresidents’,thebasiccharacteristicsofthepriceoperationare:firstly,pricesofresourcetypeproductsarerisingsubstantially,followedbypriceralliesofrawmaterials;secondly,residents’servicepricesareobviouslyrisingandthepricedecreasingmomentumofresidents’’consecutiveproactivefiscalpolicies,theexpansionofdomesticdemanda,therapidincreaseofov,,,thecountry’().Thedevelopmenttypeofconsumptionasrepresentedbyhousing,automobileandserviceshasbeeninitiatedinanall-roundwayandbroughtaboutrapidincreasesindemandofhousing,interiordecorationmaterials,,,entofthenationaleconomy,,contradictionsinsupplyanddemandstructuresr,technologyandsocialsystem,China’sindu,,thestructuralproblemshowsthattheprocessingindustryespeciallytheprocessingi,pricesoffood(mainlygrain),whichconstituteaheavycomponentintheresidents’consumerprice,willceasedecreasingandtendtostabilizeonacertainlevelbec,becauseofexistenceofexcessiveproductioncapacity,themarketissharplycompetitive,andtheincreaseinmarketdementwillcreatemoredemandforenergyandbasicrawmat,suppliesofpower,steel,chemicalmaterialsandotherbasicrawmaterialswillnotbeabletomeetdemandsintermsofquantity,typesandspecifications,resultinginvaryingdegreesofincreasesinpricesfortheseproducts....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.   2019-11-13


            郑晓涵:WuJinglianDuringthereformofenterprisesoverthepast20yearsandmore,manyofthelargeandmedium-sizedstate-ownedenterpriseshavebeentransformedinfluenceofthethinkingof"devolutionofpowerandconcessionofprofitstoenterprises",forinstance,in“TheEconomicReforminContemporaryChina”,abookpublishedatthebeginningofthisyear,thatthe"systemoflegalentitiesatmultiplelevels"isasystemofenterpriseorganizationthathasneverbeenseeninthedevelopedcountriespracticingamarketeconomyandthatithasbeesrightsandtheuseofcoercionagainsteachotherbytheindependenteconomicentitiesinsideacompany,endlessbickeringandfriction,,thesystemwhichwasoriginallydesignedtoarousetheenthusiasmofsubordinateentitieshasended,power,telecommunications,,bytakingthePetroleumCorporation(CNPC)asanexample,wewilldiscusswaysandmethodsforturningexistingcompaniesfollowingthesystemoflegalentitiesatmultiplelevelsintocompanieswithaninstitutionalsystemtob(CNPC)AmajorchallengefacedbytheChinaNationalPetroleumCorporationafteritscreationin1998throughrestructuringofthepetroleumandthepetrochemicalsectorsbytheStateCouncilwashowtoachievethe“integrationoftheupper-streamwiththedown-streamsectors,thedomestictradewithforeigntradeaswellasproductionwithmarketing”forthepurposeofsharpeningthegroupporation,theaverageproductioncostsoftheoilandgasproductionenterprisesofthePetroleumCorporationare30percentabovethoseoftheiroverseascounterparts,andthecostsn,itspetroleumandpeuicklyandeffectivelywillbeakeyfactordetermi/Mobil,thebiggestPetroleumCorporationintheworld,hasatotalnumberof120,,however,,surpassingthetotalnumberoftheemployeesoftheworldtheetroleumcorporationswhereast,thePetroleumCorporationwillhavetopinitshopeofdevelopmentuponexpansion,thefettersofthesystemoflegalentitiesatmultiplelevelsshouldbebroken,andthefoundationthathasproppedupthephenomenaof“all-embracingoperations”inbothbigandsmallpetroleumenterprises,duplicateconstruction,wasteofresources,ncedbythethinkingof“devolutionofpowerandconcessionofprofitstoenterprises”inthereformofenterprises,thelargestate-ownedenterprisesofChinahavedevelopedthesystemoflegalentitiesatmultiplelevels,underwhichcompaniesatalllevels,amanagerasalegalpersonoftheparentcompanycouldmakeinvestmentandestablishasub-companyonhisownacco,therehasdevelopedinthestate-ownedeconomicsectoraphenomenonof"anendlesslineofoffspring’s."Thispracticehascausedthefollowingproblems:,000or3,000,theseparentcompanies,scrambleamongindependenteconomicentitiesforresources,infdertheircontrolandcreatekingdomsoftheirown,eldofbusiness,whileeachentitywithaprofitwouldbecomec,forinstance,someareaswouldratherusesmallgeneratingunitsoftheirownwithhighcostsandheavyconsumprtakeadvantageoftheirpositionandpowertoappropriatepublicpropertiesbyextendingloans,providingguarantees,orexploitingothermeanstonation,somesubordinateswouldbenowheretobefound,carryingwiththemthepropertiesoftheparentcompanies....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.   2019-11-12


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