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      ByZhangChenghui,WangGangZhengHong,,’sFinancialSectorLegalsystemexercisesgreatimpactsonthedevelopmentoffinancialsectorduetoitsnatureofbeinga“contract-intensiveindustry”whichinvolvesmuchmoreintensiveandcomplexcontractualarrangementsinthepr,itismorelikelytoseeproblemslike“asymmetricinformation”and“moralhazard”.Shouldcontractsareimplementedwithoutsupervision,tradingrisksareboundtogreatlyincrease,affectinginvestors’informationandwillingnesstoentertransaction,awsisacommonproblemduringpreviousfinancialcriseswhichwerecausedbyvariousreasons①.Onlywithanopenandtransparentsystemoffinanciallawswhicheffectivelyprotectstherightsofmarketparticipants,canthesystemsuccessivelyattractmarketplayersfromhomeandabroadtoinvestandparticipateinmarkettransaction,andachievethesustainabledevel’,ratherthanadministrativepower,ureboosttherealeconomyinamoreefficientwaythroughaseriesofreforms,whichobviouslyshouldbeled,,itisnolongerfeasibletoover,regulatoryauthoritiesfindithardtodealwiththecomplicatedfinancialmarket,whi,regulatorsstrengthentheirauthoritybyexpandingpower,worseningproblemslikevyingtoregulate,gettingprofitsfromregulation,,orwithintensifyingcompetitioninfinancialmarket,quickerinte,abstractandvaguewayofauthorizingthepoweroflawenforcement,andi,itisimportanttoregulateandadjustrelationsamongfinancialregulators,institutions,markets,andclientsthroughlegalmeans,’sFinancialSectorThefirstprincipleallocatingresources,,theimprovementoffinanciallawsshouldbeguidedbytheideathatmarketplaysadecisiv,properlyassignlegalresponsibilitiestocriticallinksandtolawenforcementinstitutionssoastocreateeffectivejudicialrestraint,,participantsaremorelikelytobedrivenbyprofits,,specialattentionshouldbegiventosupervisingthefinancialproductsandactivitiesthataremulti-sector,highlyleveraged,off-balance-sheetassets,’interestsandaccumulationofsystemicrisksduetounfairfactors,suchasimbalancebetweenpowerandresponsibility,imbalancebetweencostandprofit,,itisnecessarytomatchusufructoffinancialbusinesswithcorrespondinglegalresponsibilities,regulatesellersofhigh-riskproducts,severelypunishfraud,induction,andnon-compliancetransaction,,weshouldmakelawastrongerdeterrent,regulatethemechanismofascertainingrelevantpartiescivilorcriminalliabilities,terestsoffinancialconsumers(especiallysmallandmediuminvestors).Theprimaryparticipantsinfinancialmarketareinvestors,,smallandmediuminvestorswillmosteasilysufferlossesbecauseofopaqueinformation,,financialconsumers,especiallysmallandmediuminvesto,weshouldcreateamechanismoperationalinthelegalframework,’(1),weshouldkeepthelegislativeobjectivestable,andavoidfrequentadjustmentswiththechangesinsituationssoasnottoimpairtheauthorityofl,,itisimportanttoformulatelawsandregulationswithprotectingrightsasthepriority,a,weshouldformulatedetailedratherthangenerallaws,andmeanwhilemakeiteasiertoenforcelawsbymakingarticlesasdetailedaspossible,reducingambiguity,andavoidingthesituationwherehigher-levellawsareinconsistentwiththelower-levellawsb,weshouldaddarticlesforjudicialdecisionstoimprovethejustifiabilityoffinanciallaws.(2)Weshouldlegislateinamorescientificanddemocraticwaybyadjustingthelegislatingprocess,increasingthetransparencyoflegislatingandamendinglaws.JQK365线上网址,2016Thegeneralpublicistheinitialdrivingforceforworldenvironmentalprotection,andpublicparticipationisthenecessarycomplementto“governmentfailure”and“marketfailure”isionoftheCentralCommitteeoftheCommunistPartyofChinaonSomeMajorIssuesConcerningComprehensivelyDeepeningtheReformadoptedatthethirdPlenarySessionofthe18thPartyCongresshavesetupanoverallplanforhowtogivefullplaytothefun,thenewlyrevisedEnvironmentalProtectionLawhasprovipationinEnvironmentalProtectioninordertofacilitat,China’sLivelihoodSurveyprojectteamoftheDevelopmentResearchCenteroftheStateCouncilconductedadoo,’willingnessandbehaviorfeatureswh,gender,income,%oftherespondentswerewillingtoparticipateinsupervisingenvironmentalpollution,%choseto“donothing”,%said“itdepends”(seetablebelow).Previoussurveysshowedthatpublicparticip,conductedbyRenminUniversityofChinain19952,foundthat65%oftherespondentswerereluctanttointervenewhentheysawsomeoneorsomecompanydamagedtheenvironment3;In20034,%oftheurbanrespondents“nevertookanactivepartinfilingcomplaintsandlodgingappeals”,inthepasttwodecades,theattitudeofthepublictowardenvironmentalpollutionhaschangedfrom“passivetolerance”,“turningablindeye”to“expressingappeals”and“activeparticipation”,whicherallyspeaking,althoughrespondentsweremorewillingtoparticipateinenvironmentalprotection,only52%ofthemtookactions,,%,didnottakeanyactionbecausethey“wantedtoreport,butdidnotknowhowtodoso”(seeTablebelow).Itcanbeseenthatshortageofeffectivechannelsforthepublictoparticipateandlackofbasicin,astudybyChinaEnvironmentalCulturePromotionAssociationalsofoundoutthatthephenomenonof“noaction,talkonly”,levantauthoritieswhentheyparticipateinsupervisingenvironmentalpollutionOftherespondentswhotookactions,%ofthemsaidthey“reportedorfiledcomplaintstorelevantauthorities”,%saidthey“directlycomplainedtothepolluters”.Itisobviousthatgovernmentwasthemainchannelthroughwhichthepublicexpressenvironmentalconcerns,withonlyasmallnumberofreanfiftypercentoftherespondentsbelievedgovernmenthadthemostimportantroleinenvironmentalprotection,,thethoughtthat“environmentalprotectionreliedongovernment”,peoplegraduallyrealizethat,althoughthegovernmentisthemainplayerinenvironmentalprotection,,andtheextensiveandsocialnatureofenvironmentalprotection,itisneuthoritiesshowsthepublicareplayingtheroleofsocialsupervision,andthegovernancesystemwithdi%,%%oftherespondentswhowere“satisfied”,“neithersatisfiednordissatisfied”,“dissatisfied”withgovernmentservicesreportedorfiledcom,themoretrustrespondentsputonthegovernment,andthemoreliketcomplaintstothegovernmentiftheirco,itisimportanttoseethatgovernmentchannelsmaynotbeable,evenifsomerespondentsaresatisfiedwithgovernmentservices,,uationofenvironmentqualityOftherespondentswhoreportedenvironmentalimprovementinrecentthreeyears,%ofthemwerewillingtoparticipateinsupervisingpollution,%tookactions,%choseto“donothing”;Incontrast,oftherespondentswhoreportedenvironmentaldegradation,%%ofthemwerewillingtoparticipateandtakeactionsindoingso,respectively,,theproportionofactiontakersdroppedby15percentagepoints,andthatofthosesayingthey“didnothing”...Ifyouneedthefulltext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.

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      JQK365线上网址国家税务总局宁夏回族自治区税务局 信用评价 ,2016Inordertohaveacomprehensiveknowledgeofurbanandruralresidents’lifeandkeeptrackoftheirlifesatisfaction,“ChinaLivelihoodSurvey”projectteamoftheDevelopmentResearchCenteroftheStateCouncilcarriedouthouseholdsurveyinAnhui,Zhejiang,Guangdong,Hebei,Heilongjiang,Shaanxi,Sichuan,andJiangsuprovincesin2015,withatotalof12,,duetodownwardeconomicgrowth,respondents’livingstandardsareimprovedmoreslowlyandtheproportionofpeopleverysatisfiedwiththeirlifedrops,’DissatisfactionwithIncomeandEmploymentIn2015,%oftaction,theresponde,%oftherespondentsreportthattheyareverysatisfiedwithlife,amongtherestrespondents1,%%ofthemthinkthatincomeandemploymentarethemostunsatisfactory,respectively,%.Theproportionsofrespondentsinrural,,urbanandsuburbanresidentsrankitthefourthmostunsatisfactory,whileruralresidentsrankitthethird,%,,tweenincomeandlifesatisfaction“EasterlinParadox”whichsayswhenanationgetsricher,“happiness-incomemystery”.Oneexplanationisthatlifesatisevel,longitudinalchanges,cross-sectionalgapofincomeaswellasrespondents’,000yuan,from10,000to30,000yuan,from30,000to50,000yuan,from50,000to80,000yuan,from80,000to10,0000yuan,from100,000to150,000yuan,from150,000to250,000yuan,from250,000to500,000yuan,and500,,,,,,,,,,,000yuanwhoaresatisfiedwithlifeare49%morethanthosewithanannualincomeoflessthan10,,withincreasinghouseholdincome,urbanrespondent,lifesatisfactionstartstogodownwhentheirannualhouseholdincomeexceeds500,000yuan(seeFigure1).’’self-judgmentofhouseholdincomeclassinthelocalsocietyisrelatedtotheirabsoluteincome,%%oftherespondentswithanannualhouseholdincomefrom10,000to80,000yuanreporttheybelongtolower-middleorlowerclassinthelocalsociety,%%,000to500,000yuan,%%feelthattheybelongtoupper-middleormiddleclass,%%believetheyarelower-middleorlowerclass,’self-perceivedincomecla,theproportionsofrespondentswhothinktheybelongtoupper,upper-middle,middle,lower-middle,%,%,%,%,%respectively,,,,(seeFigure2).Comparedwith2014,respondentswithlowincomehaveahigherlifesatisfactionscore,,showingthattheirlifesatisfaction,thoughlow,ctionAsshowninFigure3,respondent,whilethescoresofrespondentswithlowerincome,thesameincome,higherincome,,,,%,,000yu%,,,themorerespondentsthinktheirincomeisclosetotheirneighbors’inthecommunity,,respondents’%higherthant,000yuan,thelifesa%higherthanthatofthosebelievingabiggapbetweentheirsandtheaveragelevel....Ifyouneedthefulltext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.,Chinahasmadesignificantprogresstowardsfinancialsectorderegulationvialiberalizingbanklendingrates,expandingtheQFIIquota,increasingtheflexibilityoftheexchangerate,,includingbanklendingratesandexchangerates,arenowclosermarketequilibriums,andmarketm,Chinatructuralimbalancesduetooverregulations,Chinaneedsto:1)removecontrolsondepositrates;2)furtherincreasetheRMBsexchangerateflexibility;3)furtheropenupitscapitalaccount;and4)liberalizemarketaccesstothefinancialindustrybyremovingexcessiveandhavebeenwrittenintothethirdplenums"Decision",themostchallengingquestionishowtodesignthespecificreformprogramstbeonhighalertincludethefollowing,manyofwhichreflectlegacyissuesoftheoldsystem:,Chinaslocalgovernmentdebthasrisenquicklyinrecentyearstoabout32%,however,isthematuritymismatchbetweenlocalgovernmentliabilities(mostlyintheformofloansandtrustloans),thematurityofatypicalbankloanortrustloanis2-3years,whiletheprojectcashflowswillonlhtening,changeinprudentialregulationsonbanksandtrustcompanies,aswellasdeteriorationininvestorsentimentforwealthmanagementproducts(WMPs).InWesterncountries,theaveragematurityoflocalgovernmentdebtis7-10years,whichismuchclo,therewerenofailuresofbanksandtrustcompanies,andtherewereveryfewdefaultsofhighlyrisky(withriskssimilartojunkbondsinwesterncountries),trustcompaniesandWMPsareexceptionallystrong,butbecausemostofthesepoliticalsystemthatpenalieesofallbanks,trustcompaniesandWMPsleadtoincorrectpricingofcreditproductsissuedbysomeveryriskyborrowers,,,htsteptowardscorrectingthemispricing,,Chinasinterbankratesbecameveryvol,ahighvolatilityofinterestratestendstoconfusefinancialmarketparticipantsandcompaniesastowhatthemonetarypolicyintentionis,,asuddenspikeininterbankratescouldexacerbatethedurationriskf:theyhavedotowiththelackofcapacityinforecastingliquidity,lackofinter-governmentalcollaboration,theloan-to-depositratio,imprudentliquiditymanagementbybanks,shadowbankingactivities,aswellast,cross-bordercapitalflowsremainmanageableasformalcontrolsonQFIIandQDIIquotasremain,,assoonasthecapitalaccountisopen(,theQFIIandQDIIsystemsareabolished),large-scalecapitalinflowsand/oroutflowscouldleadtoexcessivevolatilityoftheexchangerate,destabilizethefinancialsystems,anddamagetherealeco"managedfloatingexchangerateregime",thevolatilityoftheRMB//7thatofMalaysianRinggit,1/13thatofKoreanwon,and1/,massiveinflowscouldresultifChinasbondmarketisopenedtoglobalinvestorsgiventhe2-3%interestratedifferentialbetweenChina)needtomovetowardsamoreliberalizationfinancialsystemsothattoimproveefficiency,and2)theneedtocontainanddefusetheabovementionedfinancialrisks,Chinats,alongwiththeplanedreformssuchasdepositratederegulationandcapitalaccountliberalization:,webelievethatakeyriskfacingthefinancialsystemistheexcessiverelianceoflocalgket,whichwillgraduallyreplaceloansandtrustloans,localgovernmentbondswithlongermaturitiesshouldaccountformorethan50%ofthefinancingsourcesforlocalgovernmentcapex(itisonly10%inChina).Tostartthereformprogram,Chinashouldmodifyitsbudgetlawtoallowindependentissuanceoflocalgovernmentbonds,establishacrediblecreditratingsystemforlocalgovernmentbonds,requirelocalgovernmentstopublishtheirbalancesheetsandmedium-termfinancialprojections,andestablishalegalframeworktoregulatetheapprovalprocedurebylocalpeople"manageddefaults".InaneconomyasbigasChina,afewfailuresofsmallbanksandafewdozendefaultsbyjunkbonds(orWMPs)peryearshouldbenormaland,indeed,,webelievethatregulatorsshouldpermitafewmoredefaultsofnon-standardWMPsintheremainderofthisyear,withsomemodestincreasesinthehaircut(fromthe7%haircutfortheCCTproduct)to,,10-20%.Theseeventsof"manageddefaults"maypotentiallypushupthefundingcostsby100-200bpsforhighlyriskyborrowers,buttheyarenecessaryforcontainingtheexcessiveborrowingviathetrustsector–bypricingoutsomeworstborrowers--andreducingsystemicrisks.,’sRailwaySystemintheNewPeriodRailway,abasic,strategicandleadingindustryofthenationaleconomy,ensureseconomicoperationandgrowth,theimplementationofindustrialization,,thetraditionalcentralizedplanningsystemofrailwaypeteredoutinChina,andthegovernmentreformedth,therailwaysystemcarriedoutpilotprojectsofmodernenterprisesystemandseparatingrailinfrastructureandtransportationoperation,,MinistryofRailwaysdivorcednon-transportenterprises,likeRailwayRollingStockCorporation,,enterprisesengagedinrailwaymaterials,designing,andconstructionweremanagedbyState-ownedAssetsSupervisionandAdministrationCommission(SASAC)aswellassubordinateenterprises,andrailwayhospitals,element,theStateCouncilbegananewreformonMinistryofRailwaysbyseparatingtheadministrativearmfromthecommercialarm,thussettingupChinaRailway(hereinafterreferredtoasRailway)andNationalRailwayAdministrationofthePeople’,likeunifiedcontrolandcommandofrailwaytransport,operationandmanagementofpassengerandfreighttransport,specialtransport,dedicatedtransport,railwayc,thelatterhasadministrativefunctions,likedraftingrailwaytechnicalstandards,supervisionofrailwaysafeproduction,’,Railwayinitiatedthereformoffreighttransportservice,includingtransportingalllegalgoods,instanttransport,fixedfee,anddoor-to-doorservice,whichpromotedrailwaytrans,Railwayproposedtodeepenthereformofrailwayfreighttranspor,thesleepinggiant,,,Railwayisstillconsideredmainlyanadministrativebody,withoutdeepunderstandingofmodernmarket,timelyresponsetomarketdemand,effectivemeasuresagainstcompetitors,eight,ithasgoneincreasinglyfurtherawayfrommarketdemand,withthetertiaryindustrysurpassingthesecondaryindustryinChina’sindustrialstructureandproductsmainlysmallandlight,,,,,,thereare187railwaytransportenterprises,includingChinaRailway(madeupof18regionalrailwayadministrations),109joint-venturedrailwaycompanieswithChina’sRailwayasashareholder(managedbylocalrailwayadministrations),21joint-venturedrailwaycompaniesnotinvolvingChina’sRailway,,Railwaygrabsashareofover70%,andthenumberwilljumpto98%,sho,itsvolumeandturnoveroffreightaccountfor70%and85%ofthewholepicturerespectively,andsuchnumberswillgoupto91%,pluswiththeintegrationofinfrastructureownershipandtransportationoperation,,socialcapitalusuallyfundsrailwayjointlywithChina’sRailway,butaseriesofproblems,likeunclearpropertyrights,imperfectcorporategovernancestructure,unreasonableROI(ReturnonInvestment)mechanism,littlefinancialtransparency,andnon-standardizedmanagementandoperationwithoutasociallegalenvironment,makeitdifficultforshareholderstoreflectthedemandsandinterests,makeindependentmanagementdecisions,winhighyield,,;thejoint-venturedrailwaysectionsareallowedtohavepolicy-ledriseinpassengerfare;andsome,asrailwayrateisformedunderthecentralpricingregulatorysystem,thecurrentpricingmechanismcannotfullyreflectthecostoftransport,andhowtherelationshipbetweensupplyanddemandchangesindifferentseasonsandroutes,thusunable,,China’’srailway,railwaynetworkwillcoversome200,000kilometersby2030,andrequireanother8trillionto10trillionyuan,whichwillcausemuchpressurean,effortsarestillneededtoimproveChina’,likedraftingplansonnationalrailwaynetworkconstruction,asanenterprise,itprioritizesfinancialbenefitsandinterests,whileneglectsnon-profitrailwaytransport,,railwaynetworkplanningisinc’sRepublicofChina,however,needstoenhancetheregulatorysystem,agencies,mechanism,functions,ability,andrules,,’sRepublicofChinawasreleasedintheearly1990s,andmanyarticleshavebeenoutofdate,especiallyitlacksclearstipulationsconcerningrailwayreform,governmentregulation,majormarketplayer,,bornalongtimeago,blocksustainedandsounddevelopmentoftherailwaysector,theeconomyandthesociety,whichmustbeaddressedbydeepeningreforminthenewperiod(especiallythe13thFive-YearPlanperiod).,PrinciplesandIdeasofDeepeningtheReformofChina’evelopmentoftherailwaysector,enhanceitscompetitivenessandsustainabledevelopment,andbetterserveChina’’smore,itisnecessarytomakerailwayenterprisesthemajormarketplayers,formaunified,open,andfairrailwaytransportmarketwithefficientcompetition,realizeefficientmanagement,regulationandgovernanceofthesector,aswellasacompletelegalsystem....Ifyouneedthefulltext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.

      ByLvWei,DepartmentofTechno-EconomicResearchofDRCResearchReportNo136,2014(Total4635)The18thCPCNaation-drivendevelopmentisthetransformationofdevelopmentmotivationinnatureanditurgentlyrequir"perfectingthemarket-orientedmechanismfortechnicalinnovationandgivingplaytotheguidingroleofmarketinRDdirection,routeselection,elementpriceandallocationofvariousinnovationelements".Inthemarketeconomy,thegovernmentcanworkonmarketmechanesourcestoInnovationHerearesomecasesabouthowthegovernmentofmarketeconomycountriesinfluencingthemarketmechani:RelaxingpricecontrolintargetedfieldsandreducingandexemptingtaxestopromotetechnicalprogressinshalegasexplorationanddevelopmentintheUnitedStatesAttheendoftheworldoilcrisisinthe1970s,theUSgovernmentkeptthedomesticnaturalgaspriceundercontrol,cripplingtheinitiativeofnaturalglsupplyshortage,theUSgovernmentpromulgatedseverallaw,itpromulgatedtheNaturalGasPolicyActin1978toabolishthecontrolovernaturalgaspricea,itenactedtheCrudeOilWindfallProfitTaxActtoinitiatelong-termtaxreductionandexemptionforunconventionalenergydevelopmentandtheunconventionalgasdrilledfrom1980to19,thegovernmentexpandedthescopeoftaxreductionandexemptionforunconventionalenergythroughseveralroundsofralgas,boostedtheinitiativeofUSenergyenterprisesindevelopingthegas,droveenterprisestomakecontinuousinno,break,shalegasoutputoftheUnitedStateshaskeptrisingbyover60%,includingsomemagnatessuchasShellandExxonM:Adoptingpoliciesincludingfeed-intariffanddegressivefixedfeed-intarifftoencouragePVpowergenerationandpromotePVtechnologicaladvancementinGermanyIn1991,GermanypassedtheElectricityFeedLaw,clarifyingthethreeprinciplesforPVpowergeneration:compulsivegridconnection,thatpowergrid%yearbyyearandthedifferencebetweensolarfeed-int/kWh,generationwithrenewableenergy,butalsoensuredstableandreasonableinvestment,respectively,theGer,increasedtheannualtariffdecreasemargin,adopteddifferenttariffsfordifferentformsofsolarpowe,/,butalsopromotedmanufacturersofPVpowergenerati/kWin2006toUSD1/:RegularlyadjustingemissionstandardstopromoteprogressinenergyconservationandemissionreductionoftheautoindustryinEuropeEUcountriesadoptthesameexhaustemissionstandardforcarsⅠemissionstandards,EUROⅡ,EUROⅢ,EUROⅣandEUROⅤwereputintoeffectin1992,1996,2000,,EUpassedanotheract,requiringaveragecarbondioxideemissionfor95%ofthenewcarssoldwithinEUbelow95g/,autocompanieshavetomakemassiveinvestmentintechnologicalprogress,reducepollutionandcostbyimprovingcarstructurean:FormulatingstandardsandtimetablefortechnicalupgradingtopromotetechnologyapplicationandindustrialdevelopmentofdigitaltelevisionintheUnitedStatesTopromotethedevelopmentoftheinformationsuperhighway,in1992,theClintonadministrationregardeddigitaltelevisionwithrosymarke,itpassedtheTelecommunicationsActof1996andidentifiedtheti(FCC)wasresponsibleformakingrelatedplans,publicizingthetimetableofreplacingtheanalogTVsystemwithdigitalTVsystem,fundingplansandprojectsonchannelinstallationandallocation,formulatingpreferentialpoliciesforTVstations,manufacturersandusers,offeringrelatedpartiesaperiodoftimetoprepareforthetechnical,thefederalgovernmentformulatedsupportivepoliciessuchasrelaxingaccesscontrol,grantingfinancialsupportanddevelopingtheTVcontentindustrytorestrictmonopoly,(DTV)wasfirstusedinNovember1998andbyJune2009,theUnitedStateshadclosedtransmissionofallanalogtsnottruethatthegovernmentcandonothingtoallowthemarkettoplayitsroleinallocationofinnovationresources;instead,itcanguideallocationbyadjustin,inenvironmentalprotection,energysafetyandsomeotherfieldsunderstrongexternalinfluence,themarketmechanismwonlizetheexternalcostandbenefitbeforethemarketplaysitsguidingroletochannelmoresocialsourcestowardsinnovation.博艺吧体育下注唐山市民政局:实现农村低保制度与扶贫开发政策有效衔接 ByRenXingzhou,,Duringthe13thFive-YearPlanPeriodDuringthe13thFive-YearPlanperiod,China’snationaleconomicandsocia,theseadjustmentswillbringrowthareasanddrivingforcesatthenewstageofdevelopmentItisthemainunderlyingguidelinethatChinashouldtaketheinitiativetoproactivelyadapttoandleadthenewnormalintheecon’seconomicgrowth,andalsoreflectsthetransformationofeconomicdevelopmentmode,growthdrivers,,theeconomywillbetransformedfromextensivegrowthwithlargescaleandhighspeedtointensivegrowthwithqualityandefficiency;thedrivingforcesforeconomicgrowthwillbefoundinnewgrowthareasinsteadofconventionalones;theeconomicstructurewillbeadjustedfromfocusingonexpansioninquantityandcapacitytoin-depthrestructuringwhichlaysemphasisoninventoryadjustment,qualityimprovementandquantityexpansionina’sGDPpercapitawillincreasefromthecurrent11,000internationaldollarsto15,000internationaldollars[]inthe13thFive-YearPlanperiod,,inthisperiod,thefastdevelopmentoftheserviceindustryhelpsdriveeconomicgrowth,whichinturnwillpromotethesustainableandsteadydevelopmentofChina’ntinordertobasicallyrealizeindustrializationandpromotethetransformationandupgradingofthemanufacturingindustryDuringthe13thFive-YearPlanperiod,Chinawillaccelerateitstransitiontothelaterstageofindustrializationan,industrialexpansioninquantitywillbeshiftedtoupgradinginqualitysoastopromotethe“MadeinChina2025”,itisimperativetoincreasethevalue-addedandcompetitivenessofmanufacturing,,,withtheconstantdifferentiationwithintheindustry,theproportionoflabor-intensivemanufacturingindustryandresource-intensiveheavychemicalindustrywillcontinuetodecline,whiletheproportionofcapital-andtech,makingcapital-andtechnology-intensivemanufacturingdependmoreonknowledge-intensiveserviceforproductionsuchascommercialservices,financialinsurance,andtechnologydevelopment,,small-volume,multi-batchanddifferentiationwillbeincreasinglyprominentinproduction,whichalsoeindustrytakesthelead,,China’,it’samusttoimprovefactorendowmentstructureassoonaspossible,reaslikeRD,education,edrivingforceforthetransformationandupgradingofthemanufacturingindustryandforth,withtheseverelyaggravatedenvironmentpollutionandinternationalcommitmentofenergyconservationandemissionreduction,,circularandlow-carbonproductionmode,ChinashouldacceleratethedeviceindustrydevelopmentInthe13thFive-YearPlanperiod,Chinawillseegre,theshareofworking-agepopulationfallsinthetotalpopulation,,by2020,China’spopulationaged15to64willbemorethan1billion,%,comparedwiththecurrentfigure,,,theelderlyovertheageof65willbecloseto170million,%ofthetotal,,,,by2020,themainworki,respectively,,respectively,%,withabout200millionpeoplewithhighereducation,,aspopulationagesatafasterpace,andwiththeincreaseoftheempty-nestfamilies,peoplewillpaymoreattentiontolifeandthequalityofliving,thusha,infact,,theelderlyintheirearly50,thesocalled“post-50s”,,whichhelpscreatenewsocialservicedemand,,intheprocessoftransitioningfromacountryoflargepopulationtooneofgreathumanresources,weshouldpaymoreattentiontogivingprioritytoinvestinginhumanresources,whichhelpsexpandthescaleofhigh-endhumancapitalsoastoprovidesustainedintellectualsupportforthedevelopmentofChina’sserviceindustry....Ifyouneedthefulltext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.

      明升88牌九ByLaiYouwei,,2015Inrecentyears,Chidustryasaresultofthemeasurestakentoprotectintellectualpropertyright,developintegratedindustries,givesupporttocreativetalent,makefiscal,’sculturalindustryhasembarkedonthetrackoffastdevelopment,withsteadyincreaseofcus,thefollowingfeaturescanbeseeninthedevelopmentofChina’’sculturalindustryhasembarkedonthetrackoffastdevelopment,withcontinuousoptimizationofindustrialstructureChina’scultbytheNationalBureauofStatisticsinDec2014,thevalue-addedgeneratedbyChina’,%ofGDP,%,%,thevalue-addedgeneratedbyChina’,%ofthetotalculturalindustry;the,%ofthetotal;,%ofthetotal,,thevalue-addedof“culturalcreationanddesignservice”,%’,China’sculturalindusdindustries,,withthestate-ownedorstate-controlledculturalbusinesseshavingmoredevelopmentvigorandmarketcompetitivenessIn2008,theGeneralOfficeoftheStateCouncilissuedNoticeofTwoRegulationsonTransformingFor-ProfitCulturalInstitutionsintoBusinessEnterprisesandSupportingtheDevelopmentofCulturalEnterprisesinReformationofCulturalMechanism,whichimprovedthesupportivepoliciesfortransformingpro-profitculturalinsti,China’sfor-profitculturalinstitutions,includingpublishing,distribution,film-making,TVseries-making,broadcastingandTVtransmissionaswellasordinarystate-ownedperformingartstroupes,newspapersandmagazine,auccessfullytransformedfromrelyingongovernmentfundingtoself-reliance,helevelof10billionyuan,,otherprovinces,,activelyexploreandalsopracticethewaystoacceleratetransformation,produceartisticworks,,withtheirowndevelopmentfea,,includingXinFengxia,TrilogyofOresteia,,theyhavedoneextensivere-creationoftraditionalplays,,theyre-playsometraditionalplays,suchasExchangingaLeopardCatforaPrince,RememberBacktotheCup,,,theTheaterkeepsitsannualsalesrevenueatabout12millionyuan,halfofwhic,’snon-governmentculturalmarketplayer,over700thousandculturalmarketplayerswereregisteredinindustryandcommerceadministrationofficesalloverthecountry,,,sidents’consumptionofculturalgoodsandservicesaswellaseducationandentertainment,withawideneddivideofexpenditurebetweenurbanandruralresidentsAlongwithChina’seconomicandsocialdevelopmentandtheriseofpeople’sincome,culturalconsump2013,increasingby64%,asculturalconsumptionincreasesfast,,theexpenditure,,(Inthesameperiod,thedivideofurbanandruralconsumptionpercapitabecameevenlarger,)Second,thepercentageofChina’surbanandruralresidents’expendi’percapitaexpenditureonculturalgoodsandservicesaswellase%%%%%-13%inrecentyears,whilethatofruralresidentsfellallthewaytoabout8%.Thefallofurbanspendingonculturalconsumptionismain’poorconsumptionpowerandinconvenienceinculturalconsumption.蒙城县加强政务诚信建设 实施方案 美高梅足球网址ByGaoShiji,,2016Thedevelopmentofdifferentcountriesshowsgovernmentenvironmentalregulatorysystemisakeypartofenvironmentalgovernanceinvolvingvariousparties,,whatcausesfrequentviolatio,itisofurgencytoreformChina’senvironmentalregulatorysysteminordertodealwiththepersistentconcernofenvironmentalregulationfailure,andtoimprovetheregulatoryfunctionofthonmentalgovernancesystemindicatethatthe13thFive-YearPlawillbeacriticalstageIntermsofmajorpollutants,theiremissionhasshownadecliningtrend,,emissionsofsulfurdioxide(SO2)andnitrogenoxide(NOx)peakedin2006and2011respectively;whilefortheemissionofwaterpollutants,likeCODandammonianitrogen,,studiesestimatesomeuncommonpollutants,includingvolatileorganiccompounds,ammoniaandwaterpissionofmajorpollutantsinChina,’sindustrialstructureandtrendofpollutionemissionshowthat,theperiodbetween2010and2020inChinasharesmuchresemblancewiththe1970sinEuropeanandAmericancountries,namely,’sgreendevelopmentfromtherelationshipamongeconomicgrowth,environmentalqualityandpollutionemission,thegrossemissionofmajorpollutantsinChinawill“detach”itsrelationshipwitheconomicgrowthduringthe13thFive-YearPlanperiod,acriticalturningpointforrealizinggreendevelopmentinChina(ChenJianpeng,GaoShiji,LiZuojun,2014).’senvironmentalgovernancesystemFromtheperspectiveofbuildingtheenvironmentalgovernancesystem,thereporttothe18thNationalCongressoftheCommunistPartyofChina(CPC)proposedtobuildabeautifulcountry,,political,cultural,socialandecologicalprogress,prioritizingecologithCPCNationalCongress,governmentsatalllevels,ratedReformPlanforPromotingEcologicalProgress,Chinaisheadingforadifficultandchallengingstageatwhichecologicalopment,issuedinNovember,2015,explicitlyproposedtoreformenvironmentalgovernancesystem,establishaemissionpermitsystemcoveringenterpriseswithfixedsourceofpollution,implementaverticalmanagementsystemforenvironmentalwatc,itisofsignificancetoestablishanationalreal-timeonlineenvironmentmonitoringsystem,perfectthesystemofdisclosingenvironmentalinformation,,the13thFive-YearPlanperiodwillwitnesstheimplementationofaseriesofinstitutionalarrangementsundertheframeworkofenvironmentalgovernance,andChinawillgraduallyenjoyaperfect,effectiveandefficientenvironmentalgovernancesystem,layingasrenvironmentandtheslowimprovementofenvironmentWithrespecttothechangingtrendofenvironmentalquality,the13thFive-YearPlanperiodwillseethesteadyandcontinuousprogressofmostsingleenvironmentalindicatorsinChina,,attentionshouldalsobepaidtothefactthatthetippingpointsofmajorpollutantswillbe’smore,thepolluti,includingaccumulativeeffectsofpollutants,climate,timeandspace,environmenedoreventhe“worst”,airqualitywasgettingworseforman,China’spercapitaGDPreached$6,959,exceeding11,,,thepublicwillcontinuetoattactionhasbeenstrengthenedalongwith,sincethelate1990s,environmentalregulationinChinahasbeenenhancedingeneral(LiGangetal,2010),,thepublicstronglycallsforbetterenvironmentalquality,,theconflictbetweentheaspiratiirpollutantsinChina,itwilltakeanothertwentyyearsbeforetheemissionpeaksandbeginstobelargelyreduced,andenvironmentalqualityisuptothestandardorimprovedfundamentally(ChenJianpeng,GaoShiji,LiZuojun,2013).Predictably,theabove-mentionedconflictwillshowup,ngthe13thFive-YearPlanperiodItisoneofthemajortasksforChinatogreatlyreducepollutionemdtheemissionpeakinthelate12thFive-YearPlanperiod,thee,especiallythoseintransportation,,ifexistingsourcesofindustrialpollutioncanmeettheemissionstandard,majorpollutantscanbereducedby40%―70%(ChenJining,2015;SunYouhai,2013).Whenitcomestotransportation,pollutioncanbereducedbymeansofstrictregulationandgradual,the11thand12thFive-Year,makingsurethatpollutionemissioninallmajorfieldsmeetsthestandardthroughmoreeffectiveenvironmentalregulationisthemostsignificantandrewardingtaskforpollutioncontrolduringthe13thFive-YearPlanperiod....Ifyouneedthefulltext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.“撸起袖子加油干”——三亚市财政局召开财税收入百日大会战工作推进会

      Itisthecommongoalofmankindtohaveenoughto,PresidentXiJinpingstatesclearlythenationalfoodsecuritystrategyofrelyinglargelyonselfproduction,targetingdomesticmarket,ensuringproductivity,,PremierLiKeqiangstatesthatChinesehavealongheldbeliefof"foodbeingtheparamountnecessity".Chinaw,China,throughhardworkfordecades,hasmadere,Chinasgrainyieldincreasesby98%,outputofedibleoilbynearly6times,fruitpro,Chinasproductionofmeat,egganddairyproductsrisesby86%,46%,greatfoodva,,morethan95%ofal%%%,weneedtobeawareofthefactthatwestillhavemuchtodoinmaintainingfmeettheupdateddemandofurbanandruralresidentsforadequateandqualityfood.——Intermsofgrainquantity,,urbanization,,totalpopulationandresidentsin,peoplei,,anincreaseof40to140millioninChinastotalpopulationwilltranslateintoariseinfooddemandIfwecalculatetotalgraindemansurbanization,only36%ofthepopulationisurbanizedifo%ifallpermanentresidentsinurbanareasareincl%,residentsincomewillgrowwithChina,butbeforefoodconsumptionpatternisrestructured,theincreaseinincomewillresultinshrinkingconsumptioningrainbutrisingconsumptioninanimalproducts,cofKoreawherepeoplehavesimilardietwithChinese,onlywhenGDPpercapitareachesUSD20,,lgrowfrom50%to70%andw,Chinasconsumptionofanimalproductssuchasmeat,eggs,milk,,urbanandruralresidentshavehigherdemandforthequalityandsafetyofgrainandfoodproducts.——Withincomegrowthandimprovementoflivingconditions,,pe,becauseofbackwardproductionandmanagement,marketparticipantslackofcredibilityandpoormarketsupervision,,Chinaneedstode,over400,000foodenterprises,3millionfoecializedpersonnelandfacesdifficultyinmonitoringthewholeprocess,informationsymmetryishardtoachieveamongsupervisors,manufacturers,alization,theoccurrenceofanylocalpr,foodsafetyisoneofthehot,itisachallengingundertakingcallingforlongtermeffortstostrengthensupervisionandcontroloverthefoodsupplychainsoastoensurefoodsafety.泉州市民族与宗教事务局2018年工作思路 ,2015Themeetingonthepilotworkofbuildingnationalhigh-endthinktankswasconvenedonDec1,2015,ewtypeofthinktankswithChinesecharacteristics,andinexploringthenewwaysforinstitutionsandmechanisms,ativeofbuildingnationalhigh-endthinktanks,,theLeadingGroupofComprehensivelyDeepeningReformoftheCPCCentralCommitteereviewedandapp“areurgentlyneededinChina,havedistinctcharacteristicsandinnovativesystem,andcanleaddevelopment”.Italsocallsforstandardizedpolicy-makingstudy,researchresulttransformation,cceleratinggovernancesystemmodernizationandadvancingscientific,(DRCforshorthereafter)ithChineseCharacteristicsissuedjointlybytheGeneralOfficeoftheCPCCentralCommitteeandtheGeneralOfficeoftheStateCouncilinJan2015explicitlystatedtosupportDRCandotheriktanks,bytakingopportunities,DRCfocusesonperfectingtheorganizationalformsandmanagementmethods,,andbetterservesthePartyandthecountrysoastoprovideintelligencesupporttmentofDecision-MakingServiceCapabilityServingdirectlythedecision-makingoftheCPCCentralCommitteeandtheStateCouncil,nationalhigh-endthinktanksprovideimportantsuggestionsandassistanceforourPartytoexploretherulesofgovernanceandadministration,plangoverningstrategies,,DRCshouldfocusonChina’oprovideconstructiverecommendationsandadviceforChina’,DRCcombinestheresearchonmajorstrategicissuesinthem,DRCworkshar,vigorousresearch,innovativespiritandintegrity,DRChasactivelyconductedresearchontheoverall,comprehensive,strategicandlong-standingissuesconcerningmajordirectionsandmeasuresinChina’seconomicreform,011to2014,and17projectsin2015,ntralCommittee,,DRChasundertaken10researchprojectsofmajorreformissuesgivenbytheLeadingGroupofComprehensivelyDeepeningReformoftheCPCCentralCommittee,supportingdecision-making,,DRCsubmitted,thesereportsunent,whichplayedanimportantroleinprovidingconsultancyservicet,DRChasconducted7specialinterpretationsessionsonmajorissueslike“theeconomicnewnormal”.Theseresearchpa,over560pathecountrybybuildingahigh-level,wide-raishtheinternationaldevelopmentknowledgecenter,joiningOECDDevelopmentCenteronhalfoftheChinesegovernment,sponsoring“SilkRoadInternationalForum”twicesuccessfullyoverseas,andinitiatingtheset-upof“SilkRoadThinkTankNetwork”.Atotalnumberof14newandongoingmajormulti-lateralmsThepilotworkofbuildingnificdecisionunderthen,managementmethodsforthenewtypeChinese-stylethinktanks,,Wehavedonealotofworkininnovatinganewresearchmanagementsystembycomprehensivelypromotinginstitutionalized,,andestablishingthequick-responsemechanismfort,emphasizetheimportanceoftrairmance,encouragingyoungresearcherstoparticipateinmajorresearchprojectsandpublishtheirresearchresultssoas,wehavepooledeffectivelyallsortsofthinktanks,includinginternationalthinktanks,toparticipateinconsultancyandresearchofdecisionmaking.守护好最为宝贵的资源 ByZhangChenghui,,2015SincetheThirdPlenarySessionofthe18thCentralCommitteeoftheCommunistPartyofChina,manyreformmeasureshavebeenimplementedinChina’sfinancialsectorsuchasthemarketizationofinterestrate,wideropening-up,andstreamliningadministrationanddelegatingmorepowertolower-levelgovernmentsviaShanghaiFreeTradeZone(China),theto-be-adoptedIPOregistrationsystem,issuingthereformplanforpolicy-basedbanks,moreeffortsi,,notmuchsignificanteffecthasshown,andtheimprovementoffinancialser’’smanagementoverfinancialsectorThisquestionisthecoreofallinstitutionalproblems,theessenceofwhichishowtoadjusttherelationshipbetweengovernmentandfinancialmarket,and,asoneplayerinthefinancialmarket,governmentcannotd,’,throughitscontroloverfinancialinstitutionsandfinancialmarket(equity-holdingornon-equity-holding),governmentexercisesitsimpactontheallocationandreallocationoffinancialresourcesso,throughitsimpactonfinancialtransactions(suchasimplicitguaranteesforfinancialgoodsandassistancetoavoidbusinessfailureforfinancialinstitutions),governmentmaintainsfinancialeveneconomicandsocialstability,reducesfiscalexpenditureonmitigatingrisks,espe,throughdeepinvolvementinfinancialactivities,administr,centralandlocalgovernmentsareusuallyunwillin“letthemarketplayadecisiveroleinresourceallocationandletthegovernmentplayitsduerole”.Government’sinterventioontrol,governmentcontinuestoholdthemajorityofthesharesinfinancialinstitutionsanddirectlyappointhigh-levelmanagement;Throughadministrativepower,governmentordersfinancialinstitutionsdevotetheirsupportmainlytogovernmentprojects.(’sinterventionevenintensifieswheneconomicgrowthslowsdown,andlocalgovernmentshavegrowingpressuretomaintaineconomicgrowth.)Administrativedepartmentsoffinancialsectordirectlyestablishandregulatefinancialmarket,evensettingup“onespecializedmarketforoneproduct”.,governmentofficialsaremorewillingtointervenedirectlyinfinancialinstitutionswithadministrativecontrolsbecauseofthesimplicity,directnessandquickeffectratherthanindirectlyguideandaffectresourceallocationthroughmarketmechanism,,somefinancialadministrativedepartmentsdon’,theyeventendtostrs,financialreformhasencounteredso“makingbreakthroughsfromoutside”.Forexample,effortsaremadetopromotetheestablishmentofprivatebanks,tobemoretoleranttowardsthedevelopmentofInternetfinance,andtovigorouslydevelopallsortsoffinancialinstitutionsincludingsmallloancompanies,financingguaranteecompanies,financialleasingcompanies,“makingbreakthroughsfromoutside”onboostingthedevelopmentofrealeconomy,,theemerginginstituti,evenif100privatebanksaresetup,eachwithacapitalof2billionyuan,theirtotalassetsarenomorethan2to3trillionyuan,whilethetotalassetsofthefinancialinstitutio,itiscompetitivenessandriskcontrolabilityofthemajorfinancinginstitutionsthatplayakeyroleindeterminingserviceefficiencyandriskdegreeofChina’,basedontheexperienceofTaiwan,rapidlyremovingthethresholdofmarketaccesstoprivatebanksleadstoalargenumberofbanks,excessivecompetition,,financialregulatoryauthoritiesinTaiwanwereund,financialregulatorypressureoflocalgovernment,,theinconsistencyofmarketrulesandregulatoryef,majorfinancialinstitutionshavetheproblemsofnon-standardizedcorporategovernance,lackofheadquarterscontrolandriskcontrolability,,thereisawidespreadphenomenonth,itisestimatedthatgovernmenthasdirectorindirectshareholdingofabout60%-70%,alongwithacomplexandmulti-layerprinciple-agentsystemofstate-ownedassets,resultinthedifficultyfortheprinciplestoexerciseeffectiveregulationandsupervisionoveragents,lossininformationtransmissionacrosslayers,,,directorsandsupervisorsareusuallyselectedwi-,theboardsevenb,,thechairmanisnotonlythehighestrepresentativeofstockholders’interestsinthecompany,rsofdecision-makingpowerortheadministrativeauthoritytoappointandremovemanagers,inordertoavoidbeingremovedfrompracticalcontrol,“chairmanfirst,presidentsecond”,which,toalargeextent,,excessivenon-marketfactorsexercisestrongimpactontheselectionofcompany’,governmentusuallyappointsthetopmanagementoftheheadquartersoffinancialinstitutions.(InsomefinancialinstitutionscontrolledbyprivatecapitalliketheRuralCreditUnion,itsmanagementattheprovinciallevelisalsoappointedbythegovernment.)Inmostcases,,theconceptof“topmanagement”paniesareappointedwiththeapprovalofrelevantdepartmentsortheiroffices,whichgreatlyconstraiive-orientedbasedonbusinessactivitiesandmarketevaluation,butisincreasinglyinfluencedbyandsubjecttogovernmentadministration.

      vironmentalsustainability,butpolitical,social,,theInternationalCommissionontheMeasurementofEconomicPerformanceandSocialProgressarguedthatoneofthereasonsthatGDPwasnotingeneralagoodmeasurewasthatGDPmetricsdidnotincludeassessmentsofsustainability:GDPcouldappeartobebothstrongandgrowing,,Iwanttofocusononeaspectofsustainability:the"social"ronmentalrisks,(andIwillarguerelated)risks:highlevelsofinequality,andespeciallyinequalityofopportunity,andalackoftrustinestablishedinstitutions,,—includingimplicationsforsocialandpoliticalstability—tappreciatetheimportanceoftrustinmakingamoderneconomyfunction;butintheabsenceoftrust,onepartywillcheatanother;eachpartywillgotogreatlengthstoinsurethatitwontorcantbecheated,orthatifitischeated,,wherevaluablesocietalresourcesaredevotedtodisputeresolution,ratherthantowealthcreation—,alargebodyofeconomicliteraturehasdevelopedfocusingontheimportanceoftrustandasenseoffairnessinsociety,,Ifirstdiscussinequality,then"trust"beforeturningtothepoliciesthatcanhelpChinamanagebothrisks.Ⅰ.InequalityOneofthegreatachievementsofChinaduringthepastthirdofacenturyhasbeenthereductioninp,,,ChinasGinicoefficient,astandardmeasureofinequality,rivalsthatoftheUS—,,thereisoftenamarkedincreaseininequality,assomepartsoftheeconomytake-offbeforeothers,inthepasthalfcentury,manydevelopingcountriesshowednotonlythatgrowthinearlystagesneednotbeaccompaniedbygreaterinequality,(Thisisevenmoresoifweusealternative,andarguablybetter,measuresofeconomicperformance,suchastheincomeofthemedianhousehold.)Somehavesimilarlyattemptedtojustifythehighlevelofinequalitybyassertingthatgrowinginequalityisaglobalphenomenon,,bothadvancedindustrialeconomiesandemergingeconomies,whichhavebuckedthetrend;inwhichinequalityisnotincreasing;:itispoliticsandpolicieswhichhaveshapedthelawsofeconomics,insomecasestoproducesocietieswithhighlevelsofequalityandequalityofopportunityandabroadsenseoffairness;andinothercases,,inforginga"marketeconomywithsocialistcharacteristics"ensurethatitspoliciesareoftheformerkind,"ensuringthatthemarkethasadecisiveroleinallocatingresources..."Butatthesametime,ittalkedabout"guaranteeingandimprovingthepeopleslivelihood...andstimulatingsocialfairnessandjustice,"guaranteeingthat"societyisbothfullofvitality,aswellasharmoniousandorderly."Marketeconomiesareoftenassociatedwithhighlevelsofinequalityandinequalityofopportunity,andinrecentdecadestheproblemsposedbytheseinequitieshavebecomemarkedlyworse,somuchsothatwhileGDP(asconventionallymeasured)hasbeengoingupinmostWesterncountries,(Wenote,however,thattheremaybelongperiodsforwhi,adjustedforinflation,GDPpercapitainFrance,Greece,Italy,Spain,andUKareallbelowthelevelattainedbeforethecrisis,morethanahalfdecadeago,insomecases,suchasGreece,,combinedwithreductionsinincome,,inthis,animportantlesson,alreadynoted:socialandeconomicrisksareintertwined.)Ifthisisthecase,doesntthemovetowardsmakingthemarketmoredecisivenecessarilyleadtogreatersocialrisksTheanswerisno,andtheReportofthe:"thecoreissuesaredealingwiththerelationshipbetweenthegovernmentandthemarket"Marketforces,evenwhentheyworkwellinthemannerthattheyaresupposedto,donotnecessarilyleadtoadistributionofincomeandwealththatisinanywayconsonantwithsocialharmony;quitethecontrary—asIhavenoted,theyoftencanle,health,,,andthesegenera,(saythemedian,whethermeasuredmorenarrowlybyincome,orevenmoreso,whenmeasuredmorebroadly,sHumanDevelopmentIndex,HDI,whichtakesintoaccountnotonlyincome,buthealthandeducation)performfarbetterthan,say,:thehigherlevelsofopportunityandthebettersystemsofsocialprotection(includingstrongersafetynets)arepartofthereasonforthesecountriesChinesecharacteristics,;therightoneswouldmitigatethemandensurethattheobjectivessetforthinthe3rdPlenumwouldbeachieved.大世界正网开户广东药监双公示前台查询 ByGuoJiaofeng,GaoShiji,HongTao,,2016Energysystemrevolu,energysupply,irsonJune13,2014,GeneralSecretaryXiJinpingproposedfiverequirementsonpromotingtherevolutioninenergyproductionandconsumption,oneofwhichwastoadvanceenergysystemrevolutionforfasterenergydevelopment,stressingtheimportanceofunswervinglypromotingthereform,emphasizingthecommoditynatureofenergy,buildingamarketwitheffectivecompetitionandamechanismwhereenergypriceisdeterminedbythemarket,transforminggovernmentregulationonenergy,,basedonthestrategicplansproposedbytheCentralCommitteeoftheCommunistPartyofChinaandGeneralSecretaryXiJinping,itisvitaltofurtherunderstandthedetails,guidelines,basicprinciples,strategicgoals,andmajortasksofenergysystemrevolutionby2030inChina,trendoftheenergyindustryandtherequirementofcomprehensivelydeepeningreforminChina,thereisaneedtofurtherreformtheenergysystemtomeetthedemandofrevolutioninenergyproductionandconsumption,,operatingmechanism,managementandregulationsystem,andbasicsystemsoftheenergymarket,Chinashouldtakemultiplemeasu,allowingthemarkettoplayadecisiveroleinresourceallocationandthegovernmenttoplayabetterrole,willcreateabrand-newsystemcopingwithglobalcompetitionandadaptingtothenewtechnologyrevolution,consumption,,energyconsumptionrevolution,aimingatcurbingunreasonableconsumerdemand,concentratesonenergyconservation,higherefficiencyofenergydevelopmentandutilization,strictcontrolofexcessivelygrowingenergyconsumption,,energysupplyrevolutionandinternationalcooperation,withthegoalofbuildingamulti-supplysystem,focusoncontrollingtheinitiativeofenergysecurity,ensuringdomesticsupplyasthemainchannel,acceleratingthedevelopmentofcleanandlow-carbonenergy,,asthebackboneofenergyrevolution,energytechnologyrevolution,withthegoalofupgradingindustry,laysstressontechnologyinnovation,industrialinnovationandbusinessmodelinnovation,comprehensivelyadvancingenergytechnologyinnovation,,asthesystembasisofenergyrevolution,energysystemrevolution,aimingatfastgrowthoftheenergyindustry,paysattentiontoclarifyingrespectiverolesofthegovernmentandofthemarket,andthemechanismofmarketoperationandmanagement,inordertoupgradeChina’onshipbetweengovernmentandmarket,clarifyingrespectiverolesofthegovernmentandofthemarketintheenergysector,minimizingarbitrarygovernmentinterventioninthemarket,,thegovernmentshouldplayabetterrole,providingstronginstitutionalguaranteefortransformingenergystructureandbuildingamodernenergysystemwhichisclean,low-carbon,toperation,faircompetition,freechoicesbyconsumers,independentconsumption,freeflowandequalexchangeofgoodsandproductionfactors,inordertocreateanenergymarketwithefficientcompetition,,consumersshoulds,sotheycanfreelychooseefficient,cleanandlow-costenergyproducts,,theenergysectorshouldberestructured,from“dotreform”to“chainreform”.Thereformshouldbecarriedoutinallareasalongtheentireindustrychain,fromoilandgasindustrychain,powerindustrychain,,effortsshouldbemadetoeffectivelyseparatedispatchingcenter,tradingcenter,transportanddistribution,,transmission,distributionandsales,,itisvitaltochangefrom,buteconomiconeslikebidding,auction,competitivenegotiation,sothatresourcesareobtainedthroughmarketcompetitionandwecanestablishamarkettradingsystemwithdiverseplayers,,itisimportanttohaveenergypricesetbymarketratherthanbygovernment,andrebuildanenergypriceformationmechanismcoveringallcosts,includingexternalcosts,,itiscrucialtoseparateadministrationfromregulation,rebuildanenergymanagementsystem,createanenergymanagementandregulationsystemwhichishighlyefficient,transparent,fair,just,andstrong,withclearrolesandresponsibilitiesforbothmarketandgovernment,,importanceshouldbeattachedtoformulatingandimprovingbasiclaws,separatelawsandsupportingrules,establishingascientificandeffectivelawsystemincludinglegislation,judicialprocedures,lawenforcementandlaw-basedadministration,hereformandopening-up,Chinahasimplementedarangeofreformsinthemajorparticipantsofenergydevelopmentandutilization,marketaccess,price,investmentandfinancing,foreigntrade,,suchmovesasallowingthemarkettosetthecoalprice,separatingrolesofthegovernmentandofenterprises,establishingthestatusofenterprisesasthemajorplayersinthemarket,havegreatlyincreasedmarketvitalityandbroughtaboutthegoldendecade(2002-2012),reformslike,reorganizingChina’sthreemajoroilandgascompaniesin1998,graduallyopeningmarketaccessandpricereform,haveimprovedthesystemoftheindustry,ensuringChinaamongtheworld’,reforms,suchastheestablishmentoftwogridcompanies,fivepowergenerationgroupcorporationsandStateElectricityRegulatoryCommissionin2002,haveeliminatedsystembarriersofexclusivecontrolofpower,preliminarilyimprovedthesystemofmandatoryplans,separatedtherolesofthegovernmentandofenterprisesaswellasrolesofpowergenerationplantsandofgrids,edthegrowthoftheenergyindustry....Ifyouneedthefulltext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.

      ,rwastedUrbanizationhasbeena,%%in2015andruralpopulationf,therisinglevelofurbanizationanddecliningruralpopulationhelptoreducelanduseforresidentialpurposebecause,however,isthatdespitethesharpdecreaseinruralpopulationlanduseforconstructionpu(2014-2020),duringtheperiod2000-2011,ruralpopulationdecreasedby133millionwhiletheareaofland,mainlyhomesteads1,,oneoftheimportantcausesof(MLR)ofChina,theareaoflandleftunusedinruralsettlementsisaround30millionmu,equivalenttoone-fourthoftheareaoflandusedbycities,andover90millionmuoflandisusedinefficiently,esearch,CAS,about,usedinefficientlyandevenwast,homestead-userightscanonlybetransferredwithinruraleconomiccollectivesandthereisnocompensationmec,suchasfarmerswithoutaffiliationtothecollectives,urbanresidents,enterprises,andthegovernment,cannotobtainhomestead-userightsthrough,newruralhouseholdsneedmorehomesteadswhilefarmersworkingincitiescannottransfertheirhomestead-userights,whichisboundtocausebothincreasei’residentialpropertyrightsunrecognizedandawideurban-ruralgapinhousingvaluecausedbyinstitutionaldifferencesandunequalright,housinginc,buildingahousecoststhemajorityofahousehold’,uctionpurposeinChongqing,Chengdu,,eachmuoflandreclaimedfromhomesteadusersforconstructionpurposeistradedatapriceofatleastRMB100,,000,itmeansthat,,China’dered,thepotentialvalueofruralhousingacrossthecountryisaboveRMB35trillion,whichmeansmorethanRMB135,,,anincreasingnumberoffarmershavelefttheirvillages,doingbusiness,,,,illegaltradingofruralhousingisnothingnewbutpricesaremuchlowerthantherealworthofthetradedhousingbecause,homestead-userightsarenotallowedtobetraded,farmers’propertyrightsincludinghouseownershipandhomestead-userightarenotrecognized,andfarmersdonothavetherighttoturntheirhousingintoasour,andthecompleteseparatio,urbanresidentlivedi,,however,mitteethat“farmersshouldbegrantedmorepropertyrights”.ItisurgentforChinatomakeitarealityassoonaspossiblethroughreform....Ifyouneedthefulltext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite. 湄洲岛党工委群工部2018年工作总结和2019年工作计划 JQK365线上网址Asanintegralpartofthemodernstategovernancesystem,aracteristicsundernewcircumstances,effortsneedtobemadetohaveacomprehensiveandaccurateunderstandingofthemeaningintheanceModernizationinChinaItisclarifiedintheDecisionoftheCPCCentralCommitteeonMajorIssuesConcerningComprehensivelyDeepeningtheReform(hereinafterreferredtoastheDecision)thattheultimateobjectiveofcomprehensivelydeepeningthereformistoperfectanddevelopthesocialistsystemwithChinesecharacteristicsandpromhelatterissue,clarifyingthescientificconnotationof"stategovernancesystemandgovernancecapability"andinstructingthedirectionof"stategovernancemodernization"ntegrnancecapabilityaretheconcentratedexpresrtheleadershipofthePartyandincludessystems,mechanismsandlegalarrangementsineconomy,politics,culture,society,,itisacomgesocialaffairs,coveringvariousfieldssuchasreform,development,stability,domesticaffairs,rvinglypursuethesocialistpathandperfectanddevelopthesocialistsystemwithChinesecharactsecharacteristicsistopushforwalistpathwithChinesecharacteristicsispursued;thesocialistsystemwithChinesecharacteristicscanonlybeperfectcteristicscanwerealizestatejorshina,hepointedoutthatitwouldtakeusanother30yearsbeforewecouldset,thePartyproposedpromotingthestategovernancesystemandgovernancecapabilitymoderniwithChinesecha"forgoverningacountry,systemsplayafundamental,overallandprofoundrole."AfteroversixtyyearsofpilotpracticeforexploringthewaysforbuildingsocialismwithChinesecharacteristics,,ourtophistorictaskistoperfectanddevelopthesocialistsystemwithChinesecharacteristicsandprovideasetofcomplete,stableandeffectivesystemsforPartybuildingandnationaldevelopment,thewellbeingofthepeople,,institutionalizationofstategovernancereferstotheregulationofbasicnationalpoliticalsystemsduringstategovernance,coveringpowerallocation,settingofinstitutionsforexercisingthepower,functionsoforgansofauthority,restrictionandsupervisionofpublicpowerandprotectionofcivilrights,sothatstateandsocialaffairscouldgobyrelevantlaws,berealizedinlightofChina,governanceisthesumofvariousmethodsusedbyindividualsandinstitutions,eitherprivateorpublic,,th"whatkindofgovernancesystemacountrychoosesisdecidedbyhistory,culturaltraditionandeconomicandsocialdevelopmentofthatcountryandbyitspeople.""ThestategovernancesysteminChinaisthenationalsystemforthePartytoleadthepeopletoeffectivelygovernthecountry,whilestategovernancecapabilityistheabilityofthePartyinleadingthepeopletousethenationalsystemtoeffectivelyimplementgovernance."Promotingthestategovernancesystemandgovernancecapabilitymodernizationistheprocessforthesystemandabiliwtostre,stategovernancemodernizationinChinacannotseveritstiesfromChinesehistoryorculture,thepresentstategovernancemodernizationshouldcontainpreviousreasonablefactorsinstategovernance,asforgovernance-relatedtheories,experienceandpracticeofothercountries,wecannotentirelycopyorrejectthembutshoulddrawonandmakeuseoftheirachievements. 福建省民政厅行政许可公告(2019年10月21日至10月25日) ,2016Currently,undergreatpressureofeconomicdownturninChina,inordertotacklevariousproblemsanddifficultiesintheeconomictransition,bothdevelopedandunderdevelopedregionshavetorelyoninnovation,,differentregionshaveincreasedRDinput,acceleratedtheconstructionofinnovationparks,laboratories,businessincubators,blemsinpractice,suchasintensifyingcompetitionforinnovationresourcesamongregions,disproportionateimprovementininnovativeabilityincontrastwiththeincreasedinnovationresources,andthefailureofturning“innovation”rencesamongregionsintheprocessoftransformationandinnovation,itisurgenttooptimiegionsComparingpoliciesandmeasurestopromoteinnovationindifferentregions,mostregionsstillfollowtheideaofboostingregionaleconomicdevelopmentbyattractinginvestment,namely,using“preferentialpoliciestobuildavarietyofinnovationparksandthentoattractprojects”,whichisaregionalinnovfinnovationactivities,underancausedisorderedcompetitionandadividedmarketSinceChina’seconomyentersthenewnormal,allregionshopetotransformitsdevelopmenttobeinnovation-oriented,,theyhaveintroducedalargenumberofpreferentialpolicies,suchastaxbreaks,fiscalsubsidy,andgovernmentprocurement,allofwhich,forthesakeoftheirowngrowth,aimtoattractmorehigh-qualityinnovationresourcesandprojects,,,withoutproperregulation,suchcompetitionwillbelikeviciouscompetitionforgeneralfactorsofproductionamongregionsinthepast,whichwillcauseimproperallocationofinnovationresources,affecttheoverallinnovationenvironment,,andlowefficiencyofusinginnovationresourcesThoughbeingawareoftheimportanceofinnovationandhavingproposedthegoalofbecominganinnovativeprovinceorcityduringthetransition,allregionsfailtounderstand,,theyjustduplicatethecentralinnovationpoliciesorblindl,allregionsfocusonbuildinginfrastructure,,labsorproductivitypromotioncentersoftenundertakebasicfunctionslikepropertyservices,productandequipmenttesting,instead,introducedatahighcost,findithardtoadapttothelocalenvironment,andgraduallybecomeinertwithoutplayingtheirduerole,whichpartlyexplainswhys,unhelpfultoregionalcoordinateddevelopmentInnovationresourcesinChinaareallocatedbyindustryorsector,andChinahasnotspecifiedresponsibilitiesofregionswit,,allregionsinnovateinthesameway;innovationresourcescannotbeusedjointly;elementsofinnovationlikeknowledge,technologyandtalentsfailtoflowamongregions;innovationresourcescannotbeshared,,itisdifficulttoworkjointlytopromotemajorscientificandtechnologicalinnovation,andstronglyinnovativeregionscannotplayaleadingrole,“polarizationeffect”.Thereforeinnovationresourceswillbemoreimbalancedinspace,,itwillpreventChinafrombeingmoreinnovativeaemturnstobemorecomplex,significantchangeshavetakenplaceininnovationundertakers,meaning,,,,itdependsonacombinationofmultipletechnologies,w,3Dprintingisanewtechnologycombinedwithavarietyofadvancedmaterialtechnologies,heattreatmenttechnology,nology,,innovationbecomesmoredifficultanduncertain,asifitisproducedinthe“blackbox”,,,theelectrificationtechnology,showingupinthe1970s,,accordingtoMoore’sLaw,,innovationneedsmorecapitalinvestment,’sestimationofreturnonRDin12biologicalmanufacturingenterprises,%%,,,[]....Ifyouneedthefulltext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.

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      甘肃新闻网 : ByMaJunXiangAnbo,ResearchTeamon"theReformoftheManagementSystemofState-ownedAssets"ofEnterpriseResearchInstituteofDRCResearchReportNo160,2014(Total4659)Improvingthemanagementsystemofstate-owne,implementation,andsupervisioninthehopeofimprovinggovernmentalmanagementsystemoverstate-ownedassets,regulatinggovernmental,wesuggesttoimprovecorporategovernance,maintainenterprisesstat,amanagementsystemofstate-ownedassetsshouldbeestablishedinwhichgovernmentaladministrationisseparatedfromenterprisesmanagement,authoritiesmatchresponsibilities,effecti,wecan,ontheonehand,strengthensupervisionandadministrationofstate-ownedassets,withmanagingthecapitalasthemajortask,andhelpstateeconomytogainmorevitality;ontheotherhand,wecansetupadynamicadjustmentmechanismforstate-ownedassets,n,bottom-linethinkingandgradualadvancement,m,letalonefallingintoformalism,,theprimaryproblemofstateassetsmanagementsystemist,thegoalofthisreformshouldbefocusedonrejuvenatingstate-ownedenterprises,especiallythoseinthecompetitivedomains,andestablishingareasonablemechanismforadjusti,developmentmodesaswellassystemsandinstitutions,,disharmonyandunsustainabilityinthecountry,,thereformschemeforstate-ownedassetsmanagementsystemshallbeembeddedintotheoverallconsiderationofthecountryover150thousandenterprises,,short-termmeasuresshouldbeconsistentwiththelong-termgoals;top-leveldesignwithanoverallconsiderationshouldbeintegratedwithexplorationandpilotprojectsinsomedomains;comprehensi(SOEs)reformandthescientificassessmentofpresentmanagementsystem,weshallidentifythemainproblems,advancethereforminawell-mesticandforeignexperience,aneffectivestateassetsmanagementsystemshouldbecomposedofthreeparts:governmentaldepartments,investme,shoulderingtheircorrespondingrespo,onbehalfofallthepeople,,thegovernmentisinchargeofformulatingpublicpoliciesconcerningtheadjuetwoproblems—lackofduefunctionsandunnecessaryintervention."Lackofduefunctions"indicatesthatstateassetsarenotgivenafullplayinthesocietyandeconomyastheirfunctionsanddistributionarenotadjustedintimeaccordingtothecountrysdifferentdevelopmentstagesandmarketchanges."Unnecessaryintervention"meansthatnominallytheState-ownedAssetsSupervisionandAdministrationCommissionoftheStateCouncilisaninstitutionspeciallydesignedformanagingstateassets,whilesubstantiallyitisagovernmentaldepartment,whichnotonlyintervenestoomuchintheenterprisesmanagement,,sincetheState-ownedAssetsSupervisionandAdministrationCommissionwassetup,theresponsibilitiesoftheinvestorhavebeendetermined,solvingtheproblemof"manydepartmentscontrol,butnonetakesresponsibility".Thishas,onaccountofsomeinternalandexternalfactors,theState-ownedAssetsSupervisionandAdministrationCommissionhasincreasinglyexpandeditsduedutiesinadministrating"personnel,affairsandassets",leadingtoamoreseriousmixingofgovernmentaladministrationandenterprises,whileservesasanadministrativedepartmentw,tntationfromsupervisiontoimprovethegovernmentalmanagementsystemofstateassets,regulategovernmentalmprovecorporategovernance,eliminateimproperadministrativeinterventionandensureenterprisesindependentmanagementinthemarket.

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      蒲宗孟:,2016Thegeneralpublicistheinitialdrivingforceforworldenvironmentalprotection,andpublicparticipationisthenecessarycomplementto“governmentfailure”and“marketfailure”isionoftheCentralCommitteeoftheCommunistPartyofChinaonSomeMajorIssuesConcerningComprehensivelyDeepeningtheReformadoptedatthethirdPlenarySessionofthe18thPartyCongresshavesetupanoverallplanforhowtogivefullplaytothefun,thenewlyrevisedEnvironmentalProtectionLawhasprovipationinEnvironmentalProtectioninordertofacilitat,China’sLivelihoodSurveyprojectteamoftheDevelopmentResearchCenteroftheStateCouncilconductedadoo,’willingnessandbehaviorfeatureswh,gender,income,%oftherespondentswerewillingtoparticipateinsupervisingenvironmentalpollution,%choseto“donothing”,%said“itdepends”(seetablebelow).Previoussurveysshowedthatpublicparticip,conductedbyRenminUniversityofChinain19952,foundthat65%oftherespondentswerereluctanttointervenewhentheysawsomeoneorsomecompanydamagedtheenvironment3;In20034,%oftheurbanrespondents“nevertookanactivepartinfilingcomplaintsandlodgingappeals”,inthepasttwodecades,theattitudeofthepublictowardenvironmentalpollutionhaschangedfrom“passivetolerance”,“turningablindeye”to“expressingappeals”and“activeparticipation”,whicherallyspeaking,althoughrespondentsweremorewillingtoparticipateinenvironmentalprotection,only52%ofthemtookactions,,%,didnottakeanyactionbecausethey“wantedtoreport,butdidnotknowhowtodoso”(seeTablebelow).Itcanbeseenthatshortageofeffectivechannelsforthepublictoparticipateandlackofbasicin,astudybyChinaEnvironmentalCulturePromotionAssociationalsofoundoutthatthephenomenonof“noaction,talkonly”,levantauthoritieswhentheyparticipateinsupervisingenvironmentalpollutionOftherespondentswhotookactions,%ofthemsaidthey“reportedorfiledcomplaintstorelevantauthorities”,%saidthey“directlycomplainedtothepolluters”.Itisobviousthatgovernmentwasthemainchannelthroughwhichthepublicexpressenvironmentalconcerns,withonlyasmallnumberofreanfiftypercentoftherespondentsbelievedgovernmenthadthemostimportantroleinenvironmentalprotection,,thethoughtthat“environmentalprotectionreliedongovernment”,peoplegraduallyrealizethat,althoughthegovernmentisthemainplayerinenvironmentalprotection,,andtheextensiveandsocialnatureofenvironmentalprotection,itisneuthoritiesshowsthepublicareplayingtheroleofsocialsupervision,andthegovernancesystemwithdi%,%%oftherespondentswhowere“satisfied”,“neithersatisfiednordissatisfied”,“dissatisfied”withgovernmentservicesreportedorfiledcom,themoretrustrespondentsputonthegovernment,andthemoreliketcomplaintstothegovernmentiftheirco,itisimportanttoseethatgovernmentchannelsmaynotbeable,evenifsomerespondentsaresatisfiedwithgovernmentservices,,uationofenvironmentqualityOftherespondentswhoreportedenvironmentalimprovementinrecentthreeyears,%ofthemwerewillingtoparticipateinsupervisingpollution,%tookactions,%choseto“donothing”;Incontrast,oftherespondentswhoreportedenvironmentaldegradation,%%ofthemwerewillingtoparticipateandtakeactionsindoingso,respectively,,theproportionofactiontakersdroppedby15percentagepoints,andthatofthosesayingthey“didnothing”...Ifyouneedthefulltext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.JQK365线上网址,2016Currently,undergreatpressureofeconomicdownturninChina,inordertotacklevariousproblemsanddifficultiesintheeconomictransition,bothdevelopedandunderdevelopedregionshavetorelyoninnovation,,differentregionshaveincreasedRDinput,acceleratedtheconstructionofinnovationparks,laboratories,businessincubators,blemsinpractice,suchasintensifyingcompetitionforinnovationresourcesamongregions,disproportionateimprovementininnovativeabilityincontrastwiththeincreasedinnovationresources,andthefailureofturning“innovation”rencesamongregionsintheprocessoftransformationandinnovation,itisurgenttooptimiegionsComparingpoliciesandmeasurestopromoteinnovationindifferentregions,mostregionsstillfollowtheideaofboostingregionaleconomicdevelopmentbyattractinginvestment,namely,using“preferentialpoliciestobuildavarietyofinnovationparksandthentoattractprojects”,whichisaregionalinnovfinnovationactivities,underancausedisorderedcompetitionandadividedmarketSinceChina’seconomyentersthenewnormal,allregionshopetotransformitsdevelopmenttobeinnovation-oriented,,theyhaveintroducedalargenumberofpreferentialpolicies,suchastaxbreaks,fiscalsubsidy,andgovernmentprocurement,allofwhich,forthesakeoftheirowngrowth,aimtoattractmorehigh-qualityinnovationresourcesandprojects,,,withoutproperregulation,suchcompetitionwillbelikeviciouscompetitionforgeneralfactorsofproductionamongregionsinthepast,whichwillcauseimproperallocationofinnovationresources,affecttheoverallinnovationenvironment,,andlowefficiencyofusinginnovationresourcesThoughbeingawareoftheimportanceofinnovationandhavingproposedthegoalofbecominganinnovativeprovinceorcityduringthetransition,allregionsfailtounderstand,,theyjustduplicatethecentralinnovationpoliciesorblindl,allregionsfocusonbuildinginfrastructure,,labsorproductivitypromotioncentersoftenundertakebasicfunctionslikepropertyservices,productandequipmenttesting,instead,introducedatahighcost,findithardtoadapttothelocalenvironment,andgraduallybecomeinertwithoutplayingtheirduerole,whichpartlyexplainswhys,unhelpfultoregionalcoordinateddevelopmentInnovationresourcesinChinaareallocatedbyindustryorsector,andChinahasnotspecifiedresponsibilitiesofregionswit,,allregionsinnovateinthesameway;innovationresourcescannotbeusedjointly;elementsofinnovationlikeknowledge,technologyandtalentsfailtoflowamongregions;innovationresourcescannotbeshared,,itisdifficulttoworkjointlytopromotemajorscientificandtechnologicalinnovation,andstronglyinnovativeregionscannotplayaleadingrole,“polarizationeffect”.Thereforeinnovationresourceswillbemoreimbalancedinspace,,itwillpreventChinafrombeingmoreinnovativeaemturnstobemorecomplex,significantchangeshavetakenplaceininnovationundertakers,meaning,,,,itdependsonacombinationofmultipletechnologies,w,3Dprintingisanewtechnologycombinedwithavarietyofadvancedmaterialtechnologies,heattreatmenttechnology,nology,,innovationbecomesmoredifficultanduncertain,asifitisproducedinthe“blackbox”,,,theelectrificationtechnology,showingupinthe1970s,,accordingtoMoore’sLaw,,innovationneedsmorecapitalinvestment,’sestimationofreturnonRDin12biologicalmanufacturingenterprises,%%,,,[]....Ifyouneedthefulltext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.   2019-11-12 12:10:58

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      周安王:ByShiGuangMaMingjie,ResearchTeamon"MiddleandLongTermGrowth"ofDRCResearchReport,,2014(Total4574)Sincethestartofreformandopening-up,thefocusoftheinnovationfactorslayouthasshiftedfromChina,,intheformofinnovationmaps,analyzedthetrendofchangesininnovationfactorsinter-provincial1distributionoverthepasttwodecades;sequencedtheprovincesbytheconcentrationlevelofinnovationfactors;anddiscussedtheintRegionalDistributionInthispaper,thechangesininnovationfactorsinter-provincialdistributioninthepasttwodecadeswereevaluatedfromthreeaspects:innovationinvestment,researchers,universities/colleges,andresearchinstitutes;innovationoutputwasevaluatedbyinventionpatentgrants;industrializationofinnovationachievementsincludedsuchindicatorsasthevolumeoftechnologytrade,thenumberofhi-techenterprises,,mostoftheinno,someregionshaveconcentratedmuchmoreinnovationfactorsoveracomparativelylongperiodthanolyseenfromfivetimenodesinthepasttwodecades,namely1991,1996,2001,2006,sttwodecadesandreachedRMB1trillionyuanin2012,,whileRDinvestm,,Shandong,andZhejiangused991-2010;ShaanxiandHubeiprovincesrosesharplyin2001and2006,butweresurpassedagainbycoastalprovincesin2010;SichuanandLiaoningprovinces,asoldindustrialbaseswithabundanttechnologicalresources,onceledthecountryin1991,nthepast20years,,theYangtzeRiverDeltaandGuangdonghavebecomethemainconcentrationareasofRDpersonnel:Guangdong,Jiangsu,andZhejiangboastedthemostRDpersonnelin2010,with340thousand,320thousand,and220thousandFTEs(full-timeequivalent),Beijing,Shanghai,Jiangsu,andShandonghaveheldtheleadin,northeast,centralandwe,Liaoning,ShaanxiandHubei,inparticular,usedtohaveacomparativeadvantageinscientifictalentsinthe1990s,esintoenterprisessince1999,thenumberofinstitutesreducedfrom5,463in1991to3,cades:mostofthemarelocatedintheeasternregion(Beijing,Shandong,Guangdong,andJiangsu)andthenortheasternregion(HeilongjiangandLiaoning);afewinthecentralandwesternregions(Sichuan,Hubei,andShanxi),thenumberofuniversitiesandcollegeshasincreasedatarapidpace:806in1991and3,,mostoftheuniversitiesandcollegesareintheeasternregion(Beijing,Shanghai,Jiangsu,andShandong)andthecentralregion(Hunan,Hubei,andAnhui).Secondly,thenumberofuniversitiesandcollegesinwesternprovinceslikeSichuanhasdroppedveryfast:in1991,Sichuanheldthenational2ndplaceintermsofthenumberofhighereducationinstitutions,,thenumberofuniversitiesandcollegesinAnhui,Guangdong,,rankingfirstinthecountry;inGuangdongthenumberincreasedfrom34in1991to173in2010;n4timeswhereasfrom2001-2010thenumbersawanincreaseof14times,mostofwhichwascontributedbyGuangdong,Beijing,Jiangsu,Shanghai,andZhejiang,the“newfiveprovinces”.In1991,Beijing,Liaoning,Shanghai,Sichuan,andShandongheldhalfofChina,southeastcoast,theabove-mentionedfiveprovincestookupa57-percentshareofChina,thecentralandwesternregionsonlywitnessedaslightincrea,,thecountry(atcurrentprice),,technologytradeindevelopedprovincesisincreasinglyactive,,Jiangsu,Guangdong,,Beijingspositiona%ofthenationaltotalin2010,comparedwithamere24%,,LiaoningandSichuansufferedadramaticdeclineinthisregard:theirtechnologytradevolumeaccountedfor18%%,Sichuanlostitsprideasasub-centerofdomestictechnologytrade.   2019-11-12


      卫武公:,2016Inordertohaveacomprehensiveknowledgeofurbanandruralresidents’lifeandkeeptrackoftheirlifesatisfaction,“ChinaLivelihoodSurvey”projectteamoftheDevelopmentResearchCenteroftheStateCouncilcarriedouthouseholdsurveyinAnhui,Zhejiang,Guangdong,Hebei,Heilongjiang,Shaanxi,Sichuan,andJiangsuprovincesin2015,withatotalof12,,duetodownwardeconomicgrowth,respondents’livingstandardsareimprovedmoreslowlyandtheproportionofpeopleverysatisfiedwiththeirlifedrops,’DissatisfactionwithIncomeandEmploymentIn2015,%oftaction,theresponde,%oftherespondentsreportthattheyareverysatisfiedwithlife,amongtherestrespondents1,%%ofthemthinkthatincomeandemploymentarethemostunsatisfactory,respectively,%.Theproportionsofrespondentsinrural,,urbanandsuburbanresidentsrankitthefourthmostunsatisfactory,whileruralresidentsrankitthethird,%,,tweenincomeandlifesatisfaction“EasterlinParadox”whichsayswhenanationgetsricher,“happiness-incomemystery”.Oneexplanationisthatlifesatisevel,longitudinalchanges,cross-sectionalgapofincomeaswellasrespondents’,000yuan,from10,000to30,000yuan,from30,000to50,000yuan,from50,000to80,000yuan,from80,000to10,0000yuan,from100,000to150,000yuan,from150,000to250,000yuan,from250,000to500,000yuan,and500,,,,,,,,,,,000yuanwhoaresatisfiedwithlifeare49%morethanthosewithanannualincomeoflessthan10,,withincreasinghouseholdincome,urbanrespondent,lifesatisfactionstartstogodownwhentheirannualhouseholdincomeexceeds500,000yuan(seeFigure1).’’self-judgmentofhouseholdincomeclassinthelocalsocietyisrelatedtotheirabsoluteincome,%%oftherespondentswithanannualhouseholdincomefrom10,000to80,000yuanreporttheybelongtolower-middleorlowerclassinthelocalsociety,%%,000to500,000yuan,%%feelthattheybelongtoupper-middleormiddleclass,%%believetheyarelower-middleorlowerclass,’self-perceivedincomecla,theproportionsofrespondentswhothinktheybelongtoupper,upper-middle,middle,lower-middle,%,%,%,%,%respectively,,,,(seeFigure2).Comparedwith2014,respondentswithlowincomehaveahigherlifesatisfactionscore,,showingthattheirlifesatisfaction,thoughlow,ctionAsshowninFigure3,respondent,whilethescoresofrespondentswithlowerincome,thesameincome,higherincome,,,,%,,000yu%,,,themorerespondentsthinktheirincomeisclosetotheirneighbors’inthecommunity,,respondents’%higherthant,000yuan,thelifesa%higherthanthatofthosebelievingabiggapbetweentheirsandtheaveragelevel....Ifyouneedthefulltext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.   2019-11-12


      赵佳欣:,2016China’’sCongressinMarch2016,TheThirteenthFive-YearPlanforNationalEconomicandSocialDevelopmentofthePeople’sRepublicofChina(referredasthe13thFive-YearPlan)determinedthatChinashouldupholdthephilosophyofinnovative,coordinated,green,’sgrowthintoanewstage,,ChinaWillSurelyRealizetheGoalsofthe13thFive-YearPlanasLongasPoliciesAreDesignedinaScientificWayandImplementedProperlyThe13t%inChinainthenextfiveyears,,inmyopinion,concernsaboutChina’,’comefromlowincome,withpercapitaGDPnearly$8,000in2015,which,nonetheless,’’,,capitalstockpercapitainChinaislessthan1/5ofthatintheUnitedStatesandonlyaquarterofthatinJapan,meaningChina’smodernizationdrivestillrequiresalotofcapitalinvestmentinsuchfieldsasupgradingtraditionalindustries,fosteringnewindustries,creatinginfrastructurenetworkwithinandamongcities,advancingmodernizationdrive,,,finalconsumptionexpenditurepercapitainChinaislessthan1/14ofthatintheUSor1/9ofthatinJapan,suggestingChina,inordertocompletemodernizationdrive,hastocreatemoreandmoreproductsandservicesforpeople’,China’strans,Chinafacesseverechallengeslikethedecreasingnumberoflaborandrisinglaborcosts;foranother,atthecatch-upstageofindustrialization,Chinahascultivatedvariousspecializedpersonnelsuitablefortheworld’’snoexaggerationtosaythatthehigh-qualitypopulationhasbecomethenewadvantageofChina’,advancingthenewtypeofurbanizationwithChinesecharacterist,China’%,butpopulationwithregisteredurbanresidencyonlyaccountedforlessthan40%.ThereisabiggapbetweenChinaanddevelopedcount,theChinesegovernmentattachesgreatimportancetothis,andthe13thFive-YearPlanproposestoraisethetwofiguresto60%and45%,therewillbeanother55millionurbanresidentsandsome70millionpeoplewithregisteredurbanresidencyinthenextfiveyears,whic,Chinahasnotonlyenormouspotentialtogrow,butalsomacroeconomicreg%andmadethegreatestcontributionstoglobaleco,,Chinawillactthisway,,560billionyuanmorethanthepreviousyear,andadeficitratioupto3%playitsroleinexpandingtotaldemandofthesociety,reducingtaxburdenonenterprises,,,Chinahasbeencarryingoutpruden,especiallytheformer,,Chinahasthemostforeignexchangereserves,arrivingat$,whichwillprovideeffectivemeansandlayasolidfoundationforstabilizingRMBexchangerate,inhibitingexcessivevolatilityinfinancialmarkets,,withthehelpofmorescientificindustrialpolicies,whichareim,itisalsocommontosetupind’scentralgovernmenthassetupfundsfordevelopingsmallandmediumenterprisesandforstartingandinvestinginemergingindustries,ent,Chinacanfurtherexpandthescaleofsuchfundsandsetupnewones,whichcanattractsocialcapitala,,,includingtheLawofthePRConPromotingtheTransformationofScientificandTechnologicalAchievements,s,combinedtogether,,China’sCoreTasksIncludeAdvancingStructuralReformoftheSupplyFront,SpeedingupEconomicTransformationandUpgrading,PromotingRealChangeoftheGrowthPattern,AmongWhichtheSecondistheTopPriorityThe13thFive-YearPlanlistsaseriesofmajortasksofChinainthenextfiveyears,amongwhichthegreatestimportanceshouldbeattachedtoad,likeweakergrowthmomentum,decreasingresources,worseningenvironment,andprominentsocialproblems,,Chinahastoputmoreeffortsinpromotingeconomicrestructuring,withthegreatestattentiongiventostructuralreformofthesupplyfront,andwiththecoreofchangingthegrowthpattern....Ifyouneedthefulltext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.   2019-11-11


      刘之才:ByChengGuoqiang,,minChinaThedouble-levelbasicsystemforruraloperation,“thecombinationofunifiedandseparatedoperationsystem”,builtbasedonhouseholdcontractedlandsystem,isthemajoraystem,characterizedby“collectiveownership,averagedistributionofcontractedland,andhouseholdoperation”hasplayeda,withthedeepeningofindustrializationandurbanizationandtherapidflowofrurallandandlabor,“theweakfarmingtheland”and“barrenlandforgraincrops”,everyhouseholdhadin1986,(),(),()andtherewere229millionfarmhouseholds,(),rmhouseholdsinChina,in1996,%andthenumberfellto40%,%inJilin,Heilongjiang,Anhui,SichuanandZhejiangprovinces,,,%ofallemployedlaborforcein2011engagedinthefirstindu,amongthewholelaborforce,%in2011,%,ind,%%,productionhasbeenconversedfor“non-food”(),morethan65%ofthetotalgrainoutputgrowth,,withthetransferoftherighttocontractedoperation,%ofthewhole,%,muchsmaller,forthosehavingfarmlandtransferredin,whichsuggeststhatgrainproductionisincreasinglynotfarmers’,ifthequalityoftheagriculturallaborforce,farmers’productioncapacityandtheagriculturaloperationscalefailtomeettheminimumrequirementsofthedevelopmentofmodernagriculture,itwillbedifficulttosustaintherelatedagriculturalmodernfacilitiesandequipment,scientificandtechnologicalapplications,qualityofproducts,farmingincome,andpeople’senthusiasminfarming,thusthreateningf,inChina’sagriculturalmodernization,tobringaboutgenuinebreakthroughsandinnovationsofagriculturalmanagementandacceleratetheconstructionofanewagriculturalmanagemen“PilotPraticeinChongzhou”,anInnovativePracticeofAgriculturalOperationSysteminChinaProblemsandcontradictionsintheagriculturaldevelopmentofChongzhou,amajoragriculturalcountyandgrainproducingareainChengdu,SichuanProvince,,thepermanentpo%“marginalization”blemof“whofarms”butdeepones,like“whatkindoflandshouldbeused”and“howtofarmit”.Avarietyofexplorationsandpracticeshavebeencar,majorgrainproducinghouseholdswereencouragedtotransfertheirfarmlandintheearlydaysandlaterlea,YinmalongCompanybroketheleasecontractandsurrenderedover3000mu(around200hectares)offarmlandinQiquanTown,farmerswerereluctanttotakebacktproductionandruraldevelopment,thegovernmentofChongzhou,since2010,hasbeen“forced”tostartanewtest,(around200hectares)ofsurrenderedfarmlandintopiecesrangingfrom300to500mu(around20-33hectares)andmobilizingandintroducingfarmingexpertsforriceproductionandmanagement,,therehasbeenformed,inChongzhou,anewagriculturaloperationsystemwithhouseholdcontractsystemasthebasis,farmersasthecoreparticipants,andjointlymanagedbymultipleentitiesincludingprofessionalagriculturalmanagers,landshareholdingcooperatives,socializedserviceorganizations,,itwillleadfarmerstoestablisha“landshareholdingcooperative”andexchan,itwillemployfarmingexpertswithgoodcommandoftechnologyandmanagementskillsasprofessio’smore,itwillsetupaspecializedservicesystemforlarge-scalefarminganda“one-stop”agriculturalservicesupermarket,thuscreatinganagriculturaloperationmodecovering“landshareholdingcooperatives,professionalmanagersandservicesupermarket”,“agriculturaljointoperationsystem”.   2019-11-10


      杜喜欢:JQK365线上网址,2016yindicatorofthequalityandefficiencyofinnovationinChina,butalsoanimportantgaugewhenanalyzi“NationalInnovationSurvey”1conductedbyNationalBureauofStatisticsin2015,thisreportanalyzesthedataandmakesrelatedcomparisons,andsummarizesthemainfeaturesof,problemsin,growthoverthe,thereisaremarkableriseinth,varioustypesofinnovationactivitiesareunderway,,atotalof266,000outof646,000surveyedenterpriseshadlaunchedinnovationactivities,%,,inindustry,t%%tenyearsago,whilethepercenta%%,000enterpriseshadinnovationactivities,thefollowingsectorshadaproportionofinnovativeenterprisesover60%:equipmentandinstrument,pharmaceuticals,computer,communicationsandelectronicdevices,softwareandITservices,electricalmachinery,andequipmentmanufacturing,ent,enterprisesengagedininnovationofproducts,processes,%,20%,%%,nnovation,butalsopaidmoreattentiontoupgradingmanagementefficiency,(%),equipment,machineryandsoftwarepurchase(%),torelevanttraining(%)andmarketadvertising(24%),whichshowedenterpr,enterprisescarriedoutinnovationmainlybyfollowingandimitatingwhatothersdid,andtheirinformationforproductorprocessinnovationmainlycamefromsomeforeigncounterpartsorinternationalinstitutions,leadingtoinadequateoriginalinnovation,,clients,colleges,universitiesandresearchinstitutes,governmentdepartments,industryassociations,theInternetandenterprises(groups)themselvesarethesourcesofinformationforinnovation,vationThely80%(%).Insomehightechnologyoremergingindustries,entrepreneursundertheageof30accountedformorethan15%.Entrepreneurswithassociatediplomaorbachelor%;particularly,thisgroupaccountedforover90%inlargeenterprises,state-owneden%oftheentrepreneursbelievedinnovationplayed“agreatrole”inthesurvivalanddevelopmentofenterprises,%believeditplayed“acertainrole”.,100%oftheindustrialenterpriseswhichaccomplishedproductinnovationhad“theirownnewproducts”,%had“newproductsinthemarket”,%had“newproductsintheinternationalmarket”,revenuefromnewproductsalesreachedmorethan23trillionyuan,%ationinChinaDespitelargerscaleofenterpriseinnovation,theoverallcreativityisstillinadequateinChinau,onaladvancedlevelFrom2013to2014,%,thisfigurewasstillbelowtheaverage,%,,%oftheenterpriseswereengagedintechnologyinnovationinChina,whichwasalsobelowtheproportionsofGermany(55%),Japan(%)andSouthKorea(%).Therewas,China’%in2015,%ofGermany;Inaddition,realizationrat,realizationrateofChina’%,%;%,%.vationdrive,000largeind%,%,w%,whichshowedthatthosewithinnovationdidnotoutperformthetinthedevelopmentstagewheretheyreplycompletelyoninnovationtooutperformothers....Ifyouneedthefulltext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.   2019-11-10


      周慎靓王:Asanintegralpartofthemodernstategovernancesystem,aracteristicsundernewcircumstances,effortsneedtobemadetohaveacomprehensiveandaccurateunderstandingofthemeaningintheanceModernizationinChinaItisclarifiedintheDecisionoftheCPCCentralCommitteeonMajorIssuesConcerningComprehensivelyDeepeningtheReform(hereinafterreferredtoastheDecision)thattheultimateobjectiveofcomprehensivelydeepeningthereformistoperfectanddevelopthesocialistsystemwithChinesecharacteristicsandpromhelatterissue,clarifyingthescientificconnotationof"stategovernancesystemandgovernancecapability"andinstructingthedirectionof"stategovernancemodernization"ntegrnancecapabilityaretheconcentratedexpresrtheleadershipofthePartyandincludessystems,mechanismsandlegalarrangementsineconomy,politics,culture,society,,itisacomgesocialaffairs,coveringvariousfieldssuchasreform,development,stability,domesticaffairs,rvinglypursuethesocialistpathandperfectanddevelopthesocialistsystemwithChinesecharactsecharacteristicsistopushforwalistpathwithChinesecharacteristicsispursued;thesocialistsystemwithChinesecharacteristicscanonlybeperfectcteristicscanwerealizestatejorshina,hepointedoutthatitwouldtakeusanother30yearsbeforewecouldset,thePartyproposedpromotingthestategovernancesystemandgovernancecapabilitymoderniwithChinesecha"forgoverningacountry,systemsplayafundamental,overallandprofoundrole."AfteroversixtyyearsofpilotpracticeforexploringthewaysforbuildingsocialismwithChinesecharacteristics,,ourtophistorictaskistoperfectanddevelopthesocialistsystemwithChinesecharacteristicsandprovideasetofcomplete,stableandeffectivesystemsforPartybuildingandnationaldevelopment,thewellbeingofthepeople,,institutionalizationofstategovernancereferstotheregulationofbasicnationalpoliticalsystemsduringstategovernance,coveringpowerallocation,settingofinstitutionsforexercisingthepower,functionsoforgansofauthority,restrictionandsupervisionofpublicpowerandprotectionofcivilrights,sothatstateandsocialaffairscouldgobyrelevantlaws,berealizedinlightofChina,governanceisthesumofvariousmethodsusedbyindividualsandinstitutions,eitherprivateorpublic,,th"whatkindofgovernancesystemacountrychoosesisdecidedbyhistory,culturaltraditionandeconomicandsocialdevelopmentofthatcountryandbyitspeople.""ThestategovernancesysteminChinaisthenationalsystemforthePartytoleadthepeopletoeffectivelygovernthecountry,whilestategovernancecapabilityistheabilityofthePartyinleadingthepeopletousethenationalsystemtoeffectivelyimplementgovernance."Promotingthestategovernancesystemandgovernancecapabilitymodernizationistheprocessforthesystemandabiliwtostre,stategovernancemodernizationinChinacannotseveritstiesfromChinesehistoryorculture,thepresentstategovernancemodernizationshouldcontainpreviousreasonablefactorsinstategovernance,asforgovernance-relatedtheories,experienceandpracticeofothercountries,wecannotentirelycopyorrejectthembutshoulddrawonandmakeuseoftheirachievements.   2019-11-09


      刘平平:,2016Innovationpolicie’senterpriseinnovationsurvey,completedin20151,suppliesthefirst-handmaterialsconduci“discriminatory”toacertaindegree,andhavedifferenteffectsinenterprisesofdifferentsizes,ses,industriesandregions,eyincludesassessmentofnineinnovationpoliciesamongnearly650,(IPR)protection,attractingandcultivatingtalents,financialsupport,industrialsupport,calculatingresearchanddevelopment(RD)cost,reducingoreliminatingincometaxofhighandnew-techenterprises,,nomorethan17%oftherespondentsgivethemhighrating,whileforthosepolicieswhichareratedasineffective,theproportionsofrespondentssayingsoaremorethan31%.AsforthepolicyofcalculatingRDcost,lessthan15%believeitwillhelpadvanceinnovation;nearly8%thinkithardlypromotesinnovation;and41%%and52%ofenterprisesbelievepoliciesforexemptingimporttaxontechnologicalRDequipmentandforacceler%oftheentrepreneursthinktherearelittleeffectsfrompolicies,lowpopularityandcumbersomeproceduresAmongthem,highpolicythresholdandlowpopularityofpoliciesaccountformorethan75%gibleforsuchpolicies,whichisbelievedbyabout77%dhigh-techenterprises,,thesmallerenterprisesare,early13%,thesmallerenterprisesare,,theeastern,central,,,thebiggerenterprisesare,themoretheycomplainaboutcumbersomeprocedures,whichmaybebecauselargeandmedium-sizedenterpriypublicity,implementationandproceduresreflectthecapabilityofloc,enterprisesineastChinacomplainmoreabouthighthresholdforenjoyingpoliciesratherthanpolicypublicity,,otherareas,andtheyhavelessrveyssuggestthatsmallbusinessesandlessdevelopedareasarewhereinnovationpoliciesfailtoplayapart,duetounreasonablepolicydesign,impeded,theireffectswionpoliciesSurveysprovethatin,incontrasttolow-techindustriesliketheconstructionsector,policiesforcalculatingRDcost,incometaxofhigh-techandnewenterprisesandprotectingintellectualpropertyrightshavemoreimpactoninformationtechnologyservice,scientificresearchandtechnicalservice,,innovationpoliciesaretoreducetheinnovationcostofenterprises,,aarenowmorewillingtoinnovate,%ofenterprisesinthesurveycarriedoutinnovation,withmanufacturingenterprisestakinguparelativelyhighproportionofonly48%.Withthesmallnumberofenterprisesthatengageininnovation,policieshavelimitedimpacts,andtherhenineinnovationpoliciesinthesurvey,thelargerenterprisesare,,thatsmal,althoughsmallenterprisesaccountforalargepartinthetotalnumberofinnovationenterprises,theyarenotactiveenough,,,thelessimportancetheyattachtoinnovationandtalents....Ifyouneedthefulltext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.   2019-11-09


      陈永翔:ByZhangChenghui,,2015SincetheThirdPlenarySessionofthe18thCentralCommitteeoftheCommunistPartyofChina,manyreformmeasureshavebeenimplementedinChina’sfinancialsectorsuchasthemarketizationofinterestrate,wideropening-up,andstreamliningadministrationanddelegatingmorepowertolower-levelgovernmentsviaShanghaiFreeTradeZone(China),theto-be-adoptedIPOregistrationsystem,issuingthereformplanforpolicy-basedbanks,moreeffortsi,,notmuchsignificanteffecthasshown,andtheimprovementoffinancialser’’smanagementoverfinancialsectorThisquestionisthecoreofallinstitutionalproblems,theessenceofwhichishowtoadjusttherelationshipbetweengovernmentandfinancialmarket,and,asoneplayerinthefinancialmarket,governmentcannotd,’,throughitscontroloverfinancialinstitutionsandfinancialmarket(equity-holdingornon-equity-holding),governmentexercisesitsimpactontheallocationandreallocationoffinancialresourcesso,throughitsimpactonfinancialtransactions(suchasimplicitguaranteesforfinancialgoodsandassistancetoavoidbusinessfailureforfinancialinstitutions),governmentmaintainsfinancialeveneconomicandsocialstability,reducesfiscalexpenditureonmitigatingrisks,espe,throughdeepinvolvementinfinancialactivities,administr,centralandlocalgovernmentsareusuallyunwillin“letthemarketplayadecisiveroleinresourceallocationandletthegovernmentplayitsduerole”.Government’sinterventioontrol,governmentcontinuestoholdthemajorityofthesharesinfinancialinstitutionsanddirectlyappointhigh-levelmanagement;Throughadministrativepower,governmentordersfinancialinstitutionsdevotetheirsupportmainlytogovernmentprojects.(’sinterventionevenintensifieswheneconomicgrowthslowsdown,andlocalgovernmentshavegrowingpressuretomaintaineconomicgrowth.)Administrativedepartmentsoffinancialsectordirectlyestablishandregulatefinancialmarket,evensettingup“onespecializedmarketforoneproduct”.,governmentofficialsaremorewillingtointervenedirectlyinfinancialinstitutionswithadministrativecontrolsbecauseofthesimplicity,directnessandquickeffectratherthanindirectlyguideandaffectresourceallocationthroughmarketmechanism,,somefinancialadministrativedepartmentsdon’,theyeventendtostrs,financialreformhasencounteredso“makingbreakthroughsfromoutside”.Forexample,effortsaremadetopromotetheestablishmentofprivatebanks,tobemoretoleranttowardsthedevelopmentofInternetfinance,andtovigorouslydevelopallsortsoffinancialinstitutionsincludingsmallloancompanies,financingguaranteecompanies,financialleasingcompanies,“makingbreakthroughsfromoutside”onboostingthedevelopmentofrealeconomy,,theemerginginstituti,evenif100privatebanksaresetup,eachwithacapitalof2billionyuan,theirtotalassetsarenomorethan2to3trillionyuan,whilethetotalassetsofthefinancialinstitutio,itiscompetitivenessandriskcontrolabilityofthemajorfinancinginstitutionsthatplayakeyroleindeterminingserviceefficiencyandriskdegreeofChina’,basedontheexperienceofTaiwan,rapidlyremovingthethresholdofmarketaccesstoprivatebanksleadstoalargenumberofbanks,excessivecompetition,,financialregulatoryauthoritiesinTaiwanwereund,financialregulatorypressureoflocalgovernment,,theinconsistencyofmarketrulesandregulatoryef,majorfinancialinstitutionshavetheproblemsofnon-standardizedcorporategovernance,lackofheadquarterscontrolandriskcontrolability,,thereisawidespreadphenomenonth,itisestimatedthatgovernmenthasdirectorindirectshareholdingofabout60%-70%,alongwithacomplexandmulti-layerprinciple-agentsystemofstate-ownedassets,resultinthedifficultyfortheprinciplestoexerciseeffectiveregulationandsupervisionoveragents,lossininformationtransmissionacrosslayers,,,directorsandsupervisorsareusuallyselectedwi-,theboardsevenb,,thechairmanisnotonlythehighestrepresentativeofstockholders’interestsinthecompany,rsofdecision-makingpowerortheadministrativeauthoritytoappointandremovemanagers,inordertoavoidbeingremovedfrompracticalcontrol,“chairmanfirst,presidentsecond”,which,toalargeextent,,excessivenon-marketfactorsexercisestrongimpactontheselectionofcompany’,governmentusuallyappointsthetopmanagementoftheheadquartersoffinancialinstitutions.(InsomefinancialinstitutionscontrolledbyprivatecapitalliketheRuralCreditUnion,itsmanagementattheprovinciallevelisalsoappointedbythegovernment.)Inmostcases,,theconceptof“topmanagement”paniesareappointedwiththeapprovalofrelevantdepartmentsortheiroffices,whichgreatlyconstraiive-orientedbasedonbusinessactivitiesandmarketevaluation,butisincreasinglyinfluencedbyandsubjecttogovernmentadministration.   2019-11-08


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